Exodus (DSS)

Dead Sea Scrolls - Exodus Scrolls

Table of Contents

Exodus Dead Sea Scroll - Divided by Chapter


Chapter 1

Exodus  01.01 (4Q13) 1 Now these are the names of the sons of Israel, who came into Egypt (every man and his household came with Jacob their father):

Exodus  01.03 (4Q1 ) 3 And Issachar, and Zebulun, and Benjamin,

Exodus  01.05 (4Q1 ) 05 All the souls who came out of Jacob’s body were seventy five[1] souls, and Joseph was in Egypt already.

Exodus  01.06 (4Q1 ) 06 Joseph died, as did all his brothers, and all that generation.

Exodus  01.07 (4Q1 ) 07 The children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and grew exceedingly mighty; and the land was filled with them.

Exodus  01.08 (4Q1 ) 8 Now there arose a new king over Egypt, who didn’t know Joseph.

Exodus  01.09 (4Q1 ) 09 He said to his people, “Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we.

Exodus  01.10 (4Q1 ) 10 Come, let’s deal wisely with them, lest they multiply, and it happen that when any war breaks out, they also join themselves to our enemies, and fight against us, and escape out of the land.”

Exodus  01.11 (2Q2 ) 11 Therefore they set taskmasters over them to afflict them with their burdens. They built storage cities for Pharaoh: Pithom and Raamses.

Exodus  01.12 (2Q2 ) 12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and the more they spread out increased greatly. They were grieved because of the children of Israel.

Exodus  01.13 (2Q2 ) 13 The Egyptians ruthlessly made the children of Israel serve,

Exodus  01.14 (4Q1 ) 14 and they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all kinds of service in the field, all their service, in which they ruthlessly made them serve.

Exodus  01.15 (4Q1 ) 15 The king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah,

Exodus  01.16 (4Q1 ) 16 and he said, “When you perform the duty of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them on the birth stool; if it is a son, then you shall kill him; but if it is a daughter, then she shall live.”

Exodus  01.17 (4Q1 ) 17 But the midwives feared God, and didn’t do what the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the baby boys alive.

Exodus  01.18 (4Q13) 18 The king of Egypt called for the Hebrew midwives, and said to them, “Why have you done this thing, and have saved the boys alive?”

Exodus  01.19 (4Q13) 19 The midwives said to Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew women aren’t like the Egyptian women; for they are vigorous, and give birth before the midwife comes to them.”

Exodus  01.20 (4Q13) 20 God dealt well with the midwives, and the people multiplied, and grew very mighty.

Exodus  01.21 (4Q13) 21 Because the midwives feared God, he gave them families.

Exodus  01.22 (4Q1 ) 22 Pharaoh commanded all his people, saying, “You shall cast every son who is born into the river, and every daughter you shall save alive.”



Chapter 2

Exodus  02.01 (4Q1 ) 1 A man of the house of Levi went and took a daughter of Levi as his wife.

Exodus  02.02 (4Q1 ) 02 The woman conceived, and bore a son. When she saw that he was a fine child, she hid him three months.

Exodus  02.03 (4Q1 ) 03 When she could no longer hide him, she took a papyrus basket for him, and coated it with tar and with pitch. She put the child in it, and laid it in the reeds by the river’s bank.

Exodus  02.04 (4Q1 ) 04 His sister stood far off, to see what would be done to him.

Exodus  02.05 (4Q1 ) 05 Pharaoh’s daughter came down to bathe at the river. Her maidens walked along by the riverside. She saw the basket among the reeds, and sent her servant to get it.

Exodus  02.06 (4Q13) 06 She opened it, and saw the child, and behold, the baby cried. She Pharaoh’s daughter had compassion on him, and said, “This is one of the Hebrews’ children.”

Exodus  02.07 (4Q13) 7 Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, “Should I go and call a nurse for you from the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for you?”

Exodus  02.08 (4Q13) 8 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Go.” The young woman went and called the child’s mother.

Exodus  02.09 (4Q13) 09 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Take this child away, and nurse him for me, and I will give you your wages.” The woman took the child, and nursed it.

Exodus  02.10 (4Q13) 10 The child grew, and she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. She named him Moses, and said, “Because I drew him out of the water.”

Exodus  02.11 (4Q13) 11 In After those many days, when Moses had grown up, he went out to his brothers, and looked at their burdens. He saw an Egyptian striking a Hebrew, one of his brothers.

Exodus  02.12 (4Q13) 12 He looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no one, he killed the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand.

Exodus  02.13 (4Q13) 13 He went out the second day, and saw and behold, two men of the Hebrews were fighting with each other. He said to him who did the wrong, “Why do you strike your fellow?”

Exodus  02.14 (4Q13) 14 He said to him, “Who made you a prince and a judge over us? Do you plan to kill me, as you killed the Egyptian?” Moses was very afraid, and said, “Surely this thing is known.”

Exodus  02.15 (4Q13) 15 Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to kill Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and lived in the land of Midian, and he sat down by a well.

Exodus  02.16 (4Q13) 16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters, shepherdesses of his flock. They came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father’s flock.

Exodus  02.17 (4Q13) 17 The shepherds came and drove them away; but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock.

Exodus  02.18 (4Q13) 18 When they came to Reuel, their father, he said, “How is it that you have returned so early today?”



Chapter 3

Exodus  03.08 (4Q1 ) 8 I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land to a good and large land, to a land flowing with milk and honey; to the place of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Perizzite, the Amorite, and the Hivite, the Gergashite[2], and the Jebusite.

Exodus  03.09 (4Q1 ) 09 Now, behold, the cry of the children of Israel has come to me. Moreover I have seen the oppression with which the Egyptians oppress them.

Exodus  03.10 (4Q1 ) 10 Come now therefore, and I will send you to Pharaoh, that you may bring my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt.”

Exodus  03.11 (4Q1 ) 11 Moses said to God, “Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring the children of Israel out of Egypt?”

Exodus  03.12 (4Q1 ) 12 He said, “Certainly I will be with you. This will be the token to you, that I have sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God on this mountain.”

Exodus  03.13 (4Q1 ) 13 Moses said to God, “Behold, when I come to the children of Israel, and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you;’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what should I tell them?”

Exodus  03.14 (4Q1 ) 14 God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM,” and he said, “You shall tell the children of Israel this: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’ ”

Exodus  03.15 (4Q1 ) 15 God said moreover to Moses, “You shall tell the children of Israel this, ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is my name forever, and this is my memorial to all generations.

Exodus  03.16 (4Q13) 16 Go and gather the elders of the children of Israel together, and tell them, ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to me, saying, “I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt;

Exodus  03.17 (4Q13) 17 and I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite and the Girgashite, to a land flowing with milk and honey.” ’

Exodus  03.18 (4Q13) 18 They will listen to your voice, and you shall come, you and the elders of the children of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and you shall tell him, ‘Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. Now please let us go three days’ journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to Yahweh, our God.’

Exodus  03.19 (4Q1 ) 19 I know that the king of Egypt won’t give you permission to go, no, not by a mighty hand.

Exodus  03.20 (4Q1 ) 20 I will reach out my hand and strike Egypt with all my wonders which I will do among them, and after that he will let you go.

Exodus  03.21 (4Q1 ) 21 I will give this people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, and it will happen that when you go, you shall not go empty-handed.



Chapter 4

Exodus  04.01 (4Q13) 1 Moses answered, “But, behold, they will not believe me, nor listen to my voice; for they will say, ‘Yahweh has not appeared to you.’ ”

Exodus  04.03 (4Q13) 3 He said, “Throw it, then, on the ground.” He threw it on the ground, and it became a snake; and Moses ran away from it.

Exodus  04.04 (4Q1 ) 4 Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand, and take it by the tail.” He stretched out his hand, and took hold of it, and it became a rod in his hand.

Exodus  04.05 (4Q1 ) 5 “This is so that they may believe that Yahweh, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.”

Exodus  04.06 (4Q1 ) 06 Yahweh said furthermore to him, “Now put your hand inside your cloak.” He put his hand inside his cloak, and when he took it out from his cloak, behold, his hand was leprous, as white as snow.

Exodus  04.07 (4Q1 ) 7 He said, “Put your hand inside your his cloak again.” He put his hand inside his cloak again, and when he took it out of his cloak, behold, it had turned again as his other flesh.

Exodus  04.08 (4Q1 ) 8 “It will happen, if they will not believe you or listen to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign.

Exodus  04.09 (4Q1 ) 09 It will happen, if they will not believe even these two signs or listen to your voice, that you shall take of the water of the river, and pour it on the dry land. The water which you take out of the river will become blood on the dry land.”

Exodus  04.26 (4Q1 ) 26 So he let him alone. Then she said, “You are a bridegroom of blood,” because of the circumcision.

Exodus  04.27 (4Q1 ) 27 Yahweh said to Aaron, “Go into the wilderness to meet Moses.” He went, and met him on God’s mountain, and kissed him.

Exodus  04.28 (4Q1 ) 28 Moses told Aaron all Yahweh’s words with which he had sent him, and all the signs with which he had instructed him.

Exodus  04.29 (4Q1 ) 29 Moses and Aaron went and gathered together all the elders of the children of Israel.

Exodus  04.30 (4Q1 ) 30 Aaron spoke all the words which Yahweh had spoken to Moses, and did the signs in the sight of the people.

Exodus  04.31 (2Q3 ) 31 The people believed, and when they heard that Yahweh had visited the children of Israel, and that he had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshiped.



Chapter 5

Exodus  05.01 (4Q1 ) 1 Afterward Moses and Aaron came, and said to Pharaoh, “This is what Yahweh, the God of Israel, says, ‘Let my people go, that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.’ ”

Exodus  05.03 (2Q4 ) 3 They said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Please let us go three days’ journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to Yahweh, our God, lest he fall on us with pestilence, or with the sword.”

Exodus  05.04 (4Q1 ) 4 The king of Egypt said to them, “Why do you, Moses and Aaron, take the people from their work? Get back to your burdens!”

Exodus  05.05 (2Q4 ) 5 Pharaoh said, “Behold, the people of the land are now many, and you make them rest from their burdens.”

Exodus  05.06 (4Q1 ) 06 The same day Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people, and their officers, saying,

Exodus  05.07 (4Q1 ) 07 “You shall no longer give the people straw to make brick, as before. Let them go and gather straw for themselves.

Exodus  05.08 (4Q1 ) 08 The number of the bricks, which they made before, you require from them. You shall not diminish anything of it, for they are idle; therefore they cry, saying, ‘Let’s go and sacrifice to our God.’

Exodus  05.09 (4Q1 ) 09 Let heavier work be laid on the men, that they may labor in it; and don’t let them pay any attention to lying words.”

Exodus  05.10 (4Q1 ) 10 The taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and they spoke to the people, saying, “This is what Pharaoh says: ‘I will not give you straw.

Exodus  05.11 (4Q1 ) 11 Go yourselves, get straw where you can find it, for nothing of your work shall be diminished.’ ”

Exodus  05.12 (4Q1 ) 12 So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw.

Exodus  05.13 (4Q1 ) 13 The taskmasters were urgent saying, “Fulfill your work quota daily, as when there was straw given to you!”

Exodus  05.14 (4Q1 ) 14 The officers of the children of Israel, whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and were asked, “Why haven’t you fulfilled your quota both yesterday and today, in making brick as before?”

Exodus  05.15 (4Q1 ) 15 Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried to Pharaoh, saying, “Why do you deal this way with your servants?

Exodus  05.16 (4Q1 ) 16 No straw is given to your servants, and they tell us, ‘Make brick!’ and behold, your servants are beaten; but the fault is in your own people.”

Exodus  05.17 (4Q1 ) 17 But Pharaoh said, “You are idle! You are idle! Therefore you say, ‘Let’s go and sacrifice to Yahweh.’



Chapter 6

Exodus  06.03 (4Q19) 3 and I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as God Almighty; but by my name Yahweh I was not known to them.

Exodus  06.04 (4Q1 ) 4 I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their travels, in which they lived as aliens.

Exodus  06.05 (4Q1 ) 05 Moreover I have heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage, and I have remembered my covenant.

Exodus  06.06 (4Q1 ) 06 Therefore tell the children of Israel, ‘I am Yahweh, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm, and with great judgments.

Exodus  06.07 (4Q1 ) 07 I will take you to myself for a people. I will be your God; and you shall know that I am Yahweh your God, who brings you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.

Exodus  06.08 (4Q1 ) 08 I will bring you into the land which I swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it to you for a heritage: I am Yahweh.’ ”

Exodus  06.09 (4Q1 ) 9 Moses spoke so to the children of Israel, but they didn’t listen to Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage.

Exodus  06.10 (4Q1 ) 10 Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,

Exodus  06.11 (4Q1 ) 11 “Go in, speak to Pharaoh king of Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.”

Exodus  06.12 (4Q1 ) 12 Moses spoke before Yahweh, saying, “Behold, the children of Israel haven’t listened to me. How then shall Pharaoh listen to me, who am of uncircumcised lips?”

Exodus  06.13 (4Q1 ) 13 Yahweh spoke to Moses and to Aaron, and gave them a command to the children of Israel, and to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

Exodus  06.14 (4Q1 ) 14 These are the heads of their fathers’ houses. The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi; these are the families of Reuben.

Exodus  06.15 (4Q1 ) 15 The sons of Simeon: Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanite woman; these are the families of Simeon.

Exodus  06.16 (4Q1 ) 16 These are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations: Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari; and the years of the life of Levi were one hundred thirty-seven years.

Exodus  06.17 (4Q1 ) 17 The sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei, according to their families.

Exodus  06.18 (4Q1 ) 18 The sons of Kohath: Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel; and the years of the life of Kohath were one hundred thirty-three years.

Exodus  06.19 (4Q1 ) 19 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of the Levites according to their generations.

Exodus  06.20 (4Q1 ) 20 Amram took Jochebed his father’s sister to himself as wife; and she bore him Aaron and Moses. The years of the life of Amram were one hundred thirty-seven years.

Exodus  06.21 (4Q1 ) 21 The sons of Izhar: Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri.

Exodus  06.25 (4Q1 ) 25 Eleazar Aaron’s son took one of the daughters of Putiel as his wife; and she bore him Phinehas. These are the heads of the fathers’ houses of the Levites according to their families.

Exodus  06.26 (4Q22) 26 These are that Aaron and Moses to whom Yahweh said, “Bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies.”

Exodus  06.27 (4Q22) 27 These are those who spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring out the children of Israel from Egypt. These are that Moses and Aaron.

Exodus  06.28 (4Q22) 28 On the day when Yahweh spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt,

Exodus  06.29 (4Q22) 29 Yahweh said to Moses, “I am Yahweh. Tell Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I tell you.”

Exodus  06.30 (4Q22) 30 Moses said before Yahweh, “Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh listen to me?”



Chapter 7

Exodus  07.01 (2Q2 ) 1 Yahweh said to Moses, “Behold, I have made you as God to Pharaoh; and Aaron your brother shall be your prophet.

Exodus  07.02 (2Q2 ) 02 You shall speak all that I command you; and Aaron your brother shall speak to Pharaoh, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.

Exodus  07.03 (2Q2 ) 03 I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.

Exodus  07.04 (2Q2 ) 04 But Pharaoh will not listen to you, and I will lay my hand on Egypt, and bring out my armies, my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.

Exodus  07.05 (4Q1 ) 5 The Egyptians shall know that I am Yahweh, when I stretch out my hand on Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from among them.”

Exodus  07.06 (4Q1 ) 6 Moses and Aaron did so. As Yahweh commanded them, so they did.

Exodus  07.07 (4Q1 ) 07 Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three years old, when they spoke to Pharaoh.

Exodus  07.08 (4Q1 ) 8 Yahweh spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,

Exodus  07.09 (4Q1 ) 09 “When Pharaoh speaks to you, saying, ‘Perform a miracle!’ then you shall tell Aaron, ‘Take your rod, and cast it down before Pharaoh, that it become a serpent.’ ”

Exodus  07.10 (4Q1 ) 10 Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh, and they did so, as Yahweh had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent.

Exodus  07.11 (4Q1 ) 11 Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers. They also, the magicians of Egypt, did the same thing with their enchantments.

Exodus  07.12 (4Q1 ) 12 For they each cast down their rods, and they became serpents; but Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods.

Exodus  07.13 (4Q1 ) 13 Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken.

Exodus  07.14 (4Q22) 14 Yahweh said spoke[1] to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is stubborn. He refuses to let the people go.

Exodus  07.15 (4Q1 ) 15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning. Behold, he goes out to the water; and you shall stand by the river’s bank to meet him; and the rod which was turned to a serpent you shall take in your hand.

Exodus  07.16 (4Q1 ) 16 You shall tell him, ‘Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you, saying, “Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness;” and behold, until now you haven’t listened.

Exodus  07.17 (4Q1 ) 17 Yahweh says, “In this you shall know that I am Yahweh. Behold: I will strike with the rod that is in my hand on the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood.

Exodus  07.18 (4Q1 ) 18 The fish that are in the river shall die, and the river shall become foul; and the Egyptians shall loathe to drink water from the river.” ’ ”

Exodus  07.19 (4Q1 ) 19 Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your rod, and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, over their streams, and over their pools, and over all their ponds of water, that they may become blood; and there shall be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone.’ ”

Exodus  07.20 (4Q1 ) 20 Moses and Aaron did so, as Yahweh commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and struck the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.

Exodus  07.21 (4Q14) 21 The fish that were in the river died; and the river became foul, and the Egyptians couldn’t drink water from the river; and the blood was throughout all the land of Egypt.

Exodus  07.22 (4Q14) 22 The magicians of Egypt did the same thing with their enchantments; and Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken.

Exodus  07.23 (4Q14) 23 Pharaoh turned and went into his house, and he didn’t even take this to heart.



Chapter 8

Exodus  08.01 (4Q14) 1 Yahweh spoke to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh, and tell him, “This is what Yahweh says, ‘Let my people go, that they may serve me.

Exodus  08.02 (4Q14) 02 If you refuse to let them go, behold, I will plague all your borders with frogs:

Exodus  08.03 (4Q14) 03 and the river shall swarm with frogs, which shall go up and come into your house, and into your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the house of your servants, and on your people, and into your ovens, and into your kneading troughs:

Exodus  08.04 (4Q20) 04 and the frogs shall come up both on you, and on your people, and on all your servants.’”

Exodus  08.05 (4Q14) 5 Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your rod over the rivers, over the streams, and over the pools, and cause frogs to come up on the land of Egypt.’ ”

Exodus  08.09 (4Q14) 9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “I give you the honor of setting the time that I should pray for you, and for your servants, and for your people, that the frogs be destroyed from you and your houses, and remain in the river only.”

Exodus  08.10 (4Q14) 10 Pharaoh said, “Tomorrow.” Moses said, “Be it according to your word, that you may know that there is no one like Yahweh our God.

Exodus  08.12 (4Q14) 12 Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried to Yahweh concerning the frogs which he had brought on Pharaoh.

Exodus  08.13 (4Q14) 13 Yahweh did according to the word of Moses, and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the courts, and out of the fields.

Exodus  08.15 (4Q14) 15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was a respite, he hardened his heart, and didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken.

Exodus  08.16 (4Q14) 16 Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your rod, and strike the dust of the earth, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.’ ”

Exodus  08.17 (4Q14) 17 They did so; and Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and struck the dust of the earth, and there were lice on man, and on animal; all the dust of the earth became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.

Exodus  08.18 (4Q14) 18 The magicians tried with their enchantments to produce lice, but they couldn’t. There were lice on man, and on animal.

Exodus  08.19 (4Q22) 19 Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is God’s finger;” but Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken.

Exodus  08.20 (4Q14) 20 Yahweh said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh; behold, he comes out to the water; and tell him, ‘This is what Yahweh says, “Let my people go, that they may serve me.

Exodus  08.21 (4Q14) 21 Else, if you will not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies on you, and on your servants, and on your people, and into your houses. The houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground they are on.

Exodus  08.22 (4Q14) 22 I will set apart in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end you may know that I am Yahweh on the earth.

Exodus  08.23 (4Q22) 23 And Moses and Aaron entered before Pharaoh and said to him, “Yahweh says: ‘Let my people go, that they may serve me. For if you do not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies on you and on your servants and on your people and on your houses, and the houses of Egypt will be filled with swarms of flies, and also he land where they are. And on that day I will set apart the land of Goshen where my people dwell, that there will not be swarms of flies, in order that you may know that I am Yahweh in the midst of the land.[4] I will put a division between my people and your people. This sign shall happen by tomorrow.” ’ ”

Exodus  08.24 (4Q1 ) 24 Yahweh did so; and there came grievous swarms of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants’ houses. In all the land of Egypt the land was corrupted by reason of the swarms of flies.

Exodus  08.25 (4Q1 ) 25 Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God in the land!”

Exodus  08.26 (4Q1 ) 26 Moses said, “It isn’t appropriate to do so; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to Yahweh our God. Behold, if we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, won’t they stone us?

Exodus  08.27 (4Q22) 27 We will go three days’ journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to Yahweh our God, as he shall command us.”



Chapter 9

Exodus  09.05 (4Q22) 5 Yahweh appointed a set time, saying, “Tomorrow Yahweh shall do this thing in the land.” And Moses and Aaron entered before Pharaoh and said to him, “Yahweh, God of the Hebrews says: “’Let my people go that they may serve me, for if you refuse to let my people go, and still hold on to them, behold, the hand of Yahweh will be on your livestock which is in the field, on the horses and the donkeys and the camels, on cattle and sheep, a very serious matter. And Yahweh will distinguish between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt and nothing will die from all that belongs to the children of Israel. Tomorrow Yahweh will do this thing in the land.[5]

Exodus  09.06 (4Q22) 06 Yahweh did that thing on the next day; and all the livestock of Egypt died, but of the livestock of the children of Israel, not one died.

Exodus  09.07 (4Q22) 07 Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not so much as one of the livestock of the Israelites dead. But the heart of Pharaoh was stubborn, and he didn’t let the people go.

Exodus  09.08 (4Q1 ) 8 Yahweh said to Moses and to Aaron, “Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the sky in the sight of Pharaoh.

Exodus  09.09 (4Q22) 09 It shall become small dust over all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boils and blisters breaking out on man and on animal, throughout all the land of Egypt.”

Exodus  09.10 (4Q14) 10 They took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward the sky; and it became boils and blisters breaking on man and on animal.

Exodus  09.11 (4Q14) 11 The magicians couldn’t stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians.

Exodus  09.12 (4Q22) 12 Yahweh hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken to Moses.

Exodus  09.13 (4Q22) 13 Yahweh said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh, and tell him, ‘This is what Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, says: “Let my people go, that they may serve me.

Exodus  09.14 (4Q22) 14 For this time I will send all my plagues against your heart, against your officials, and against your people; that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth.

Exodus  09.15 (4Q14) 15 For now I would have stretched out my hand, and struck you and your people with pestilence, and you would have been cut off from the earth;

Exodus  09.16 (4Q14) 16 but indeed for this cause I have made you stand: to show you my power, and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth;

Exodus  09.17 (4Q14) 17 because you still exalt yourself against my people, that you won’t let them go.

Exodus  09.18 (4Q14) 18 Behold, tomorrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as has not been in Egypt since the day it was founded even until now.

Exodus  09.19 (4Q22) 19 Now therefore command that all of your livestock and all that you have in the field be brought into shelter. The hail will come down on every man and animal that is found in the field, and isn’t brought home, and they will die.” ’ ” And Moses and Aaron entered before Pharaoh and said to him: “Yahweh, God of the Hebrews, says: ‘Let my people go that they may serve me. For this time I will send all my plagues on your heart, and upon your servants and upon your people, that you may know that there is none like me in all the earth. For now I have sent forth my hand to strike you and your people with a plague and cut you off from the land. But indeed, for this reason I have allowed you to stand, to show you my power and to declare my name throughout the earth. Yet you still exalt yourself against my people by not letting them go. Behold, tomorrow at about this time I will cause very heavy hail to fall, such as has not been in Egypt since the day it was founded even until now. Now therefore send, gather your cattle and all that you have in the field; every man and animal that is found in the field and that is not brought home, the hail will come down on them and they will die.’” [6]

Exodus  09.20 (4Q14) 20 Those who feared Yahweh’s word among the servants of Pharaoh made their servants and their livestock flee into the houses.

Exodus  09.21 (4Q22) 21 Whoever didn’t respect Yahweh’s word left his servants and his livestock in the field.

Exodus  09.22 (4Q14) 22 Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward the sky, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, on man, and on animal, and on every herb of the field, throughout the land of Egypt.”

Exodus  09.23 (4Q14) 23 Moses stretched out his rod toward the heavens, and Yahweh sent thunder and hail; and lightning flashed down to the earth. Yahweh rained hail on the land of Egypt.

Exodus  09.24 (4Q14) 24 So there was very severe hail, and lightning mixed with the hail, such as had not been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.

Exodus  09.25 (4Q14) 25 The hail struck throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and animal; and the hail struck every herb of the field, and broke every tree of the field.

Exodus  09.27 (2Q2 ) 27 Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said to them, “I have sinned this time. Yahweh is righteous, and I and my people are wicked.

Exodus  09.28 (2Q2 ) 28 Pray to Yahweh; for there has been enough of mighty thunderings and hail. I will let you go, and you shall stay no longer.”

Exodus  09.29 (2Q2 ) 29 Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands to Yahweh. The thunders shall cease, and there will not be any more hail; that you may know that the earth is Yahweh’s.

Exodus  09.30 (4Q14) 30 But as for you and your servants, I know that you don’t yet fear the Lord Yahweh God.”

Exodus  09.31 (4Q14) 31 The flax and the barley were struck, for the barley had ripened and the flax was blooming and the barley had ripened.

Exodus  09.32 (4Q14) 32 But the wheat and the spelt were not struck, for they had not grown up.

Exodus  09.33 (4Q14) 33 Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands to Yahweh; and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured on the earth.

Exodus  09.34 (4Q14) 34 When Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders had ceased, he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants.

Exodus  09.35 (4Q14) 35 The heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he didn’t let the children of Israel go, just as Yahweh had spoken through Moses.



Chapter 10

Exodus  10.01 (4Q14) 1 Yahweh said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I may show these my signs among them;

Exodus  10.02 (4Q22) 02 and that you may tell in the hearing of your son, and of your son’s son, what things I have done to Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that you may know that I am Yahweh.” And you shall say to Pharaoh, “Yahweh, God of the Hebrews, says: ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go, that they may serve me. For if you refuse to let my people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts to your country, and they will cover the face of the earth, so that one will not be able to see the earth. And they will eat the remnant which escaped, which remains to you from the hail, and will eat every tree which grows for you out of the field. And your houses will be filled, and the houses of all your servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians, as neither your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen, from the day that they were upon the earth until this day.’”[7]

Exodus  10.03 (4Q14) 3 Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh, and They said to him, “This is what Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, says: ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go, that they may serve me.

Exodus  10.04 (4Q14) 04 Or else, if you refuse to let my people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your country,

Exodus  10.05 (4Q22) 05 and they shall cover the surface of the earth, so that one won’t be able to see the earth. They shall eat the residue of that which has escaped, which remains to you from the hail, and shall eat every herb of the land and every fruit of the[8] tree which grows for you out of the field.

Exodus  10.06 (4Q22) 06 Your houses shall be filled, and the houses of all your servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians, as neither your fathers nor your fathers’ fathers have seen, since the day that they were on the earth to this day.’ ” He turned, and went out from Pharaoh.

Exodus  10.07 (4Q14) 7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long will this man be a snare to us? Let the men go, that they may serve Yahweh, their God. Don’t you yet know that Egypt is destroyed?”

Exodus  10.08 (4Q14) 8 Moses and Aaron were brought again to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve Yahweh your God; but who are those who will go?”

Exodus  10.09 (4Q14) 9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and with our old; with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast to Yahweh.”

Exodus  10.10 (4Q22) 10 He said to them, “Yahweh be with you if I let you go with your little ones! See, evil is clearly before your faces.

Exodus  10.11 (4Q22) 11 Not so! Go now you who are men, and serve Yahweh; for that is what you desire!” Then they were driven out from Pharaoh’s presence.

Exodus  10.12 (4Q14) 12 Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up on the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail has left.”

Exodus  10.13 (4Q14) 13 Moses stretched out his rod over the land of Egypt, and Yahweh brought an east wind on the land all that day, and all night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.

Exodus  10.14 (4Q14) 14 The locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the borders of Egypt. They were very grievous. Before them there were no such locusts as they, nor will there ever be again.

Exodus  10.15 (4Q14) 15 For they covered the surface of the whole earth, so that the land it was darkened destroyed, and they ate every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left. There remained nothing green, either tree or herb of the field, through all the land of Egypt.

Exodus  10.16 (4Q14) 16 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste, and he said, “I have sinned against Yahweh your God, and against you.

Exodus  10.17 (4Q14) 17 Now therefore please forgive my sin again, and pray to Yahweh your God, that he may also take away from me this death.”

Exodus  10.18 (4Q14) 18 Moses went out from Pharaoh, and prayed to Yahweh.

Exodus  10.19 (4Q14) 19 Yahweh turned an exceedingly strong west wind, which took up the locusts, and drove them into the Red Sea. There remained not one locust in all the borders of Egypt.

Exodus  10.20 (4Q22) 20 But Yahweh hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he didn’t let the children of Israel go.

Exodus  10.21 (4Q22) 21 Yahweh said spoke to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward the sky, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.”

Exodus  10.22 (4Q22) 22 Moses stretched out his hand toward the sky, and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days.

Exodus  10.23 (4Q14) 23 They didn’t see one another, and nobody rose from his place for three days; but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.

Exodus  10.24 (4Q14) 24 Pharaoh called to Moses, and said, “Go, serve Yahweh. Only let your flocks and your herds stay behind. Let your little ones also go with you.”

Exodus  10.25 (4Q22) 25 Moses said, “You must also give into our hand sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice to Yahweh our God.

Exodus  10.26 (4Q22) 26 Our livestock also shall go with us. Not a hoof shall be left behind, for of it we must take to serve Yahweh our God; and we don’t know with what we must serve Yahweh, until we come there.”

Exodus  10.27 (4Q22) 27 But Yahweh hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he wouldn’t let them go.

Exodus  10.28 (4Q22) 28 Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me! Be careful to see my face no more; for in the day you see my face you shall die!”



Chapter 11

Exodus  11.03 (2Q2 ) 3 Yahweh gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the midst of the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh’s servants, and in the sight of the people.

Exodus  11.04 (2Q2 ) 4 Moses said to Pharaoh, “This is what Yahweh says: ‘About midnight I will go out into the middle of Egypt,

Exodus  11.05 (2Q2 ) 05 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the female servant who is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of livestock.

Exodus  11.06 (2Q2 ) 06 There shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there has not been, nor shall be any more.

Exodus  11.07 (2Q2 ) 07 But against any of the children of Israel a dog won’t even bark or move its tongue, against man or animal; that you may know that Yahweh makes a distinction between the Egyptians and Israel.

Exodus  11.08 (4Q22) 8 All these servants of yours will come down to me, and bow down themselves to me, saying, “Get out, with all the people who follow you;” and after that I will go out.’ ” He went out from Pharaoh in hot anger.

Exodus  11.09 (4Q14) 9 Yahweh said to Moses, “Pharaoh won’t listen to you, that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”

Exodus  11.10 (4Q14) 10 Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but Yahweh hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he didn’t let the children of Israel go out of his land.




Chapter 12

Exodus  12.01 (4Q22) 1 Yahweh spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

Exodus  12.02 (4Q22) 02 “This month shall be to you the beginning of months. It shall be the first month of the year to you.

Exodus  12.06 (4Q22) 6 You shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it them at evening.

Exodus  12.07 (4Q22) 07 They shall take some of the blood, and put it on the two door posts and on the lintel, on the houses in which they shall eat it.

Exodus  12.08 (4Q22) 08 They shall eat the meat in that night, roasted with fire, and unleavened bread. They shall eat it with bitter herbs.

Exodus  12.12 (4Q14) 12 For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and animal. Against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am Yahweh.

Exodus  12.13 (4Q14) 13 The blood shall be to you for a token on the houses where you are. When I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague will be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.

Exodus  12.14 (4Q14) 14 This day shall be to you for a memorial, and you shall keep it a feast to Yahweh: throughout your generations you shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever.

Exodus  12.15 (4Q14) 15 “ ‘Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread; even the first day you shall put away yeast out of your houses, for whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.

Exodus  12.16 (4Q14) 16 In the first day there shall be to you a holy convocation, and in the seventh day a holy convocation; no kind of work shall be done in them, except that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you.

Exodus  12.17 (4Q22) 17 You shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this same day I have brought your armies out of the land of Egypt. Therefore you shall observe this day throughout your generations by an ordinance forever.

Exodus  12.18 (4Q22) 18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty first day of the month at evening.

Exodus  12.19 (4Q22) 19 There shall be no yeast found in your houses for seven days, for whoever eats that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a foreigner, or one who is born in the land.

Exodus  12.20 (4Q22) 20 You shall eat nothing leavened. In all your habitations you shall eat unleavened bread.’ ”

Exodus  12.21 (4Q22) 21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said to them, “Draw out, and take lambs according to your families, and kill the Passover.

Exodus  12.22 (4Q22) 22 You shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two door posts with the blood that is in the basin. None of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning.

Exodus  12.26 (2Q3 ) 26 It will happen, when your children ask you, ‘What do you mean by this service?’

Exodus  12.27 (2Q3 ) 27 that you shall say, ‘It is the sacrifice of Yahweh’s Passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he struck the Egyptians, and spared our houses.’” The people bowed their heads and worshiped.

Exodus  12.30 (4Q22) 30 Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead.

Exodus  12.31 (4Q14) 31 He called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, “Rise up, get out from among my people, both you and the children of Israel; and go, serve Yahweh, as you have said!

Exodus  12.32 (2Q2 ) 32 Take both your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone; and bless me also!”

Exodus  12.33 (2Q2 ) 33 The Egyptians were urgent with the people, to send them out of the land in haste, for they said, “We are all dead men.”

Exodus  12.34 (2Q2 ) 34 The people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their clothes on their shoulders.

Exodus  12.35 (2Q2 ) 35 The children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and clothing.

Exodus  12.36 (2Q2 ) 36 Yahweh gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. They plundered the Egyptians.

Exodus  12.37 (2Q2 ) 37 The children of Israel traveled from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot who were men, in addition to children.

Exodus  12.38 (2Q2 ) 38 A mixed multitude went up also with them, with flocks, herds, and even very much livestock.

Exodus  12.39 (2Q2 ) 39 They baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought out of Egypt; for it wasn’t leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt, and couldn’t wait, and they had not prepared any food for themselves.

Exodus  12.40 (2Q2 ) 40 Now the time that the children of Israel lived in Egypt was four hundred thirty years.

Exodus  12.41 (2Q2 ) 41 At the end of four hundred thirty years, to the day, all of Yahweh’s armies went out from the land of Egypt.

Exodus  12.42 (4Q14) 42 It is a night to be much observed to Yahweh for bringing them out from the land of Egypt. This is that night of Yahweh, to be much observed of all the children of Israel throughout their generations.

Exodus  12.43 (4Q14) 43 Yahweh said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner shall eat of it,

Exodus  12.44 (4Q14) 44 but every man’s servant who is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then shall he eat of it.

Exodus  12.45 (4Q14) 45 A foreigner and a hired servant shall not eat of it.

Exodus  12.46 (4Q14) 46 It must be eaten in one house. You shall not carry any of the meat outside of the house. Do not break any of its bones.

Exodus  12.47 (4Q14) 47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.

Exodus  12.48 (4Q14) 48 When a stranger shall live as a foreigner with you, and will keep the Passover to Yahweh, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one who is born in the land: but no uncircumcised person shall eat of it.



Chapter 13

Exodus  13.03 (4Q16) 3 Moses said to the people, “Remember this day, in which you came out the land[1] of Egypt, out of the house of bondage[2]; for by strength of hand Yahweh brought you out from this place. No leavened bread shall be eaten.

Exodus  13.04 (4Q16) 04 Today you go out in the month Abib.

Exodus  13.05 (4Q16) 05 It shall be, when Yahweh your God[3] shall bring you into the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, which he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, that you shall keep this service in this month.

Exodus  13.06 (4Q22) 06 Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to Yahweh.

Exodus  13.07 (4Q22) 07 Unleavened bread shall be eaten throughout the seven days; and no leavened bread shall be seen with you. No yeast shall be seen with you, within all your borders.

Exodus  13.12 (4Q22) 12 that you shall set apart to Yahweh all that opens the womb, and every firstborn that comes from an animal which you have. The males shall be Yahweh’s.

Exodus  13.13 (4Q22) 13 Every firstborn of a donkey you shall redeem with a lamb; and if you will not redeem it, then you shall break its neck; and you shall redeem all the firstborn of man among your sons.

Exodus  13.15 (4Q15) 15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, Yahweh killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of livestock. Therefore I sacrifice to Yahweh all that opens the womb, being males; but all the firstborn of my sons I redeem.’

Exodus  13.16 (4Q15) 16 It shall be for a sign on your hand, and for symbols between your eyes: for by strength of hand Yahweh brought us out of Egypt.”[1]

Exodus  13.18 (4Q14) 18 but God led the people around by the way of the wilderness by the Red Sea; and the children of Israel went up armed out of the land of Egypt.

Exodus  13.19 (4Q14) 19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for he had made the children of Israel swear, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones away from here with you.”

Exodus  13.20 (4Q14) 20 They took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness.

Exodus  13.21 (4Q14) 21 Yahweh went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them on their way, and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light, that they might go by day and by night:

Exodus  13.22 (4Q14) 22 the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, didn’t depart from before the people.

Exodus  13.40 (4Q17) 40:7-27;




Chapter 14

Exodus  14.02 (4Q14) 2 “Speak to the children of Israel, that they turn back and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, before Baal Zephon. You shall encamp opposite it by the sea.

Exodus  14.03 (4Q14) 03 Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, ‘They are entangled in the land. The wilderness has shut them in.’

Exodus  14.04 (4Q14) 04 I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and he will follow after them; and I will get honor over Pharaoh, and over all his armies; and the Egyptians shall know that I am Yahweh.” They did so.

Exodus  14.05 (4Q14) 5 The king of Egypt was told that the people had fled; and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was changed towards the people, and they said, “What is this we have done, that we have let Israel go from serving us?”

Exodus  14.07 (4Q14) 7 and he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over all of them.

Exodus  14.08 (4Q14) 08 Yahweh hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued the children of Israel; for the children of Israel went out with a high hand.

Exodus  14.09 (4Q14) 09 The Egyptians pursued them. All the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, his horsemen, and his army overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pihahiroth, before Baal Zephon.

Exodus  14.10 (4Q14) 10 When Pharaoh came near, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians were marching after them; and they were very afraid. The children of Israel cried out to Yahweh.

Exodus  14.11 (4Q14) 11 They said to Moses, “Because there were no graves in Egypt, have you taken us away to die in the wilderness? Why have you treated us this way, to bring us out of Egypt?

Exodus  14.12 (4Q14) 12 Isn’t this the word that we spoke to you in Egypt, saying, ‘Leave us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians?’ For it would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.”

Exodus  14.13 (4Q14) 13 Moses said to the people, “Don’t be afraid. Stand still, and see the salvation of Yahweh, which he will work for you today; for the Egyptians whom you have seen today, you shall never see them again.

Exodus  14.21 (4Q18) 21 Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and Yahweh caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.

Exodus  14.22 (4Q18) 22 The children of Israel went into the middle of the sea on the dry ground, and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left.

Exodus  14.23 (4Q18) 23 The Egyptians pursued, and went in after them into the middle of the sea: all of Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.

Exodus  14.24 (4Q18) 24 In the morning watch, Yahweh looked out on the Egyptian army through the pillar of fire and of cloud people[1], and confused the Egyptian army.

Exodus  14.25 (4Q18) 25 He took off their chariot wheels, and they drove them heavily; so that the Egyptians said, “Let’s flee from the face of Israel, for Yahweh fights for them against the Egyptians!”

Exodus  14.26 (4Q18) 26 Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the waters may come again on the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen.”

Exodus  14.27 (4Q18) 27 Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it. Yahweh overthrew the Egyptians in the middle of the sea.




Chapter 15

Exodus  15.01 (4Q15) 1 Then Moses and the children of Israel sang this song to Yahweh, and said, “I will sing to Yahweh, for he has triumphed gloriously. The horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea.

Exodus  15.09 (4Q14) 9 The enemy said, ‘I will pursue. I will overtake. I will divide the plunder. My desire shall be satisfied on them. I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.’

Exodus  15.11 (4Q14) 11 Who is like you, Yahweh, among the gods? Who is like you, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders?

Exodus  15.12 (4Q14) 12 You stretched out your right hand. The earth swallowed them.

Exodus  15.13 (4Q14) 13 “You, in your loving kindness, have led the people that you have redeemed. You have guided them in your strength to your holy habitation.

Exodus  15.14 (4Q14) 14 The peoples have heard. And they tremble. Pangs have taken hold on the inhabitants of Philistia.

Exodus  15.15 (4Q14) 15 Then the chiefs of Edom were dismayed. Trembling takes hold of the mighty men of Moab. All the inhabitants of Canaan have melted away.

Exodus  15.16 (4Q14) 16 Terror and dread falls on them. By the greatness of your arm they are as still as a stone— until your people pass over, Yahweh, until the people you have purchased pass over.

Exodus  15.17 (4Q14) 17 You shall bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of your inheritance, the place, Yahweh, which you have made for yourself to dwell in; the sanctuary, Lord Yahweh, which your hands have established.

Exodus  15.18 (4Q14) 18 Yahweh shall reign forever and ever.”

Exodus  15.19 (4Q14) 19 For the horses of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and Yahweh brought back the waters of the sea on them; but the children of Israel walked on dry land in the middle of the sea.

Exodus  15.20 (4Q14) 20 Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a tambourine in her hand; and all the women went out after her with tambourines and with dances.

Exodus  15.21 (4Q14) 21 Miriam answered them, “Sing to Yahweh, for he has triumphed gloriously. The horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea.”

Exodus  15.23 (4Q22) 23 When they came to Marah, they couldn’t drink from the waters of Marah, for they were bitter. Therefore its name was called Marah.

Exodus  15.24 (4Q22) 24 The people murmured against Moses, saying, “What shall we drink?”

Exodus  15.25 (4Q22) 25 Then he cried to Yahweh. Yahweh showed him a tree, and he threw it into the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There he made a statute and an ordinance for them, and there he tested them.

Exodus  15.26 (4Q22) 26 He said, “If you will diligently listen to Yahweh your God’s voice, and will do that which is right in his eyes, and will pay attention to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of the diseases on you, which I have put on the Egyptians; for I am Yahweh who heals you.”

Exodus  15.27 (4Q22) 27 They came to Elim, where there were twelve springs of water, and seventy palm trees. They encamped there by the waters.



Chapter 16

Exodus  16.01 (4Q22) 1 They took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came to the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt.

Exodus  16.04 (4Q22) 4 Then Yahweh said to Moses, “Behold, I will rain bread from the sky for you, and the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day, that I may test them, whether they will walk in my law or not.

Exodus  16.05 (4Q22) 05 It shall come to pass on the sixth day, that they shall prepare that which they bring in, and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.”

Exodus  16.07 (4Q22) 7 In the morning, you shall see Yahweh’s glory; because he hears your murmurings against Yahweh. Who are we, that you murmur against us?”

Exodus  16.08 (4Q22) 08 Moses said, “Now Yahweh will give you meat to eat in the evening, and in the morning bread to satisfy you, because Yahweh hears your murmurings which you murmur against him. And who are we? Your murmurings are not against us, but against Yahweh.”

Exodus  16.12 (1Q2 ) 12 “I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel. Speak to them, saying, ‘At evening you shall eat meat, and in the morning you shall be filled with bread: and you shall know that I am Yahweh your God.’”

Exodus  16.13 (1Q2 ) 13 In the evening, quail came up and covered the camp; and in the morning the dew lay around the camp.

Exodus  16.14 (1Q2 ) 14 When the dew that lay had gone, behold, on the surface of the wilderness was a small round thing, small as the frost on the ground.

Exodus  16.15 (1Q2 ) 15 When the children of Israel saw it, they said to one another, “What is it?” For they didn’t know what it was. Moses said to them, “It is the bread which Yahweh has given you to eat.”

Exodus  16.16 (1Q2 ) 16 This is the thing which Yahweh has commanded: “Gather of it everyone according to his eating; an omer a head, according to the number of your persons, you shall take it, every man for those who are in his tent.”

Exodus  16.31 (4Q22) 31 The house of Israel called its name “Manna”, and it was like coriander seed, white; and its taste was like wafers with honey.

Exodus  16.32 (4Q22) 32 Moses said, “This is the thing which Yahweh has commanded, ‘Let an omer-full of it be kept throughout your generations, that they may see the bread with which I fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you out of the land of Egypt.’ ”

Exodus  16.33 (4Q22) 33 Moses said to Aaron, “Take a pot, and put an omer-full of manna in it, and lay it up before Yahweh, to be kept throughout your generations.”

Exodus  16.34 (4Q22) 34 As Yahweh commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the Testimony, to be kept.

Exodus  16.35 (4Q22) 35 The children of Israel ate the manna forty years, until they came to an inhabited land. They ate the manna until they came to the borders of the land of Canaan.




Chapter 17

Exodus  17.01 (4Q14) 1 All the congregation of the children of Israel traveled[1] from the wilderness of Sin, starting according to Yahweh’s commandment, and encamped in Rephidim; but there was no water for the people to drink.

Exodus  17.02 (4Q14) 02 Therefore the people quarreled with Moses, and said, “Give us water to drink.” Moses said to them, “Why do you quarrel with me? And why do you test Yahweh?”

Exodus  17.03 (4Q14) 3 The people were thirsty for water there; and the people murmured against Moses, and said, “Why have you brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us, our children, and our livestock with thirst?”

Exodus  17.04 (4Q14) 4 Moses cried to Yahweh, saying, “What shall I do with these people? They are almost ready to stone me.”

Exodus  17.05 (4Q14) 5 Yahweh said to Moses, “Walk on before the people, and take the elders of Israel with you, and take the rod in your hand with which you struck the Nile, and go.

Exodus  17.06 (4Q14) 06 Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock in Horeb. You shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, that the people may drink.” Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.

Exodus  17.07 (4Q14) 07 He called the name of the place Massah, and Meribah, because the children of Israel quarreled, and because they tested Yahweh, saying, “Is Yahweh among us, or not?”

Exodus  17.08 (4Q14) 8 Then Amalek came and fought with Israel in Rephidim.

Exodus  17.09 (4Q14) 09 Moses said to Joshua, “Choose men for us, and go out, fight with Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with God’s rod in my hand.”

Exodus  17.10 (4Q14) 10 So Joshua did as Moses had told him, and fought with Amalek; and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.

Exodus  17.11 (4Q14) 11 When Moses held up his hand, Israel prevailed. When he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed.

Exodus  17.12 (4Q14) 12 But Moses’ hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur held up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side. His hands were steady until sunset.

Exodus  17.13 (4Q14) 13 Joshua defeated Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.

Exodus  17.14 (4Q14) 14 Yahweh said to Moses, “Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: that I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under the sky.”

Exodus  17.15 (4Q14) 15 Moses built an altar, and called its name “Yahweh our Banner”.

Exodus  17.16 (4Q14) 16 He said, “Yah has sworn: ‘Yahweh will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.’ ”




Chapter 18

Exodus  18.01 (4Q14) 1 Now Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel his people, how that Yahweh had brought Israel out of Egypt.

Exodus  18.02 (4Q14) 02 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, received Zipporah, Moses’ wife, after he had sent her away,

Exodus  18.03 (4Q14) 03 and her two sons. The name of one son was Gershom, for Moses said, “I have lived as a foreigner in a foreign land”.

Exodus  18.04 (4Q14) 04 The name of the other was Eliezer, for he said, “My father’s God was my help and delivered me from Pharaoh’s sword.”

Exodus  18.05 (4Q14) 05 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, came with Moses’ sons and his wife to Moses into the wilderness where he was encamped, at the Mountain of God.

Exodus  18.06 (4Q14) 06 He said to Moses, “I, your father-in-law Jethro[2], have come to you with your wife, and her two sons with her.”

Exodus  18.07 (4Q14) 7 Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed and kissed him. They asked each other of their welfare, and they came he brought him into the tent.

Exodus  18.08 (4Q14) 08 Moses told his father-in-law all that Yahweh had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the hardships that had come on them on the way, and how Yahweh delivered them.

Exodus  18.09 (4Q14) 09 Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which Yahweh had done to Israel, in that he had delivered them out of the hand of the Egyptians.

Exodus  18.10 (4Q14) 10 Jethro said, “Blessed be Yahweh, who has delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; who has delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians.

Exodus  18.11 (4Q14) 11 Now I know that Yahweh is greater than all gods because of the way that they treated people arrogantly.”

Exodus  18.12 (4Q14) 12 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took a burnt offering and sacrifices for God. Aaron came with all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God.

Exodus  18.13 (4Q22) 13 On the next day, Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood around Moses from the morning to the evening.

Exodus  18.14 (4Q22) 14 When Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people, he said, “What is this thing that you do for the people? Why do you sit alone, and all the people stand around you from morning to evening?”

Exodus  18.15 (4Q22) 15 Moses said to his father-in-law, “Because the people come to me to inquire of God.

Exodus  18.16 (4Q22) 16 When they have a matter, they come to me, and I judge between a man and his neighbor, and I make them know the statutes of God, and his laws.”

Exodus  18.17 (4Q22) 17 Moses’ father-in-law said to him, “The thing that you do is not good.

Exodus  18.18 (4Q22) 18 You will surely wear away, both you, and this people that is with you; for the thing is too heavy for you. You are not able to perform it yourself alone.

Exodus  18.19 (4Q22) 19 Listen now to my voice. I will give you counsel, and God be with you. You represent the people before God, and bring the causes to God.

Exodus  18.20 (4Q22) 20 You shall teach them the statutes and the laws, and shall show them the way in which they must walk, and the work that they must do.

Exodus  18.21 (2Q3 ) 21 Moreover you shall provide out of all the people able men which fear God: men of truth, hating unjust gain; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.

Exodus  18.22 (2Q3 ) 22 Let them judge the people at all times. It shall be that every great matter they shall bring to you, but every small matter they shall judge themselves. So shall it be easier for you, and they shall share the load with you.

Exodus  18.23 (4Q22) 23 If you will do this thing, and God commands you so, then you will be able to endure, and all these people also will go to their place in peace.”

Exodus  18.24 (4Q22) 24 So Moses listened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said.

Exodus  18.25 (4Q22) 25 Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens said to the people, “I am not able to bear you myself alone. Yahweh your God has multiplied you, and behold, you are this day like the stars of the sky for multitude. Yahweh, the God of your fathers, make you a thousand times as many as you are, and bless you, as he has promised you! How can I myself alone bear your heavy burden, and your load, your burden and your strife? Take wise men of understanding, and known, according to your tribes, and I will make them heads over you. You answered me and said, ‘The thing which you have spoken is good for us to do.’” And he took the heads of their tribes, wise and knowing men, and he appointed them as heads over them; rulers of thousands and rulers of hundreds and rulers of fifties and rulers of tens, and officers according to their tribes. And he commanded the judges, saying, “Hear the cases between your brothers, and judge righteously between a man and his brother, and a sojourner who is with him. You shall not show partiality in judgment; you shall hear the small and the great alike; you shall not be afraid of the face of man; for the judgment is God’s. And the case that is too hard for you, you shall bring to me, and I will hear it. And he charged them all the matters which they were to do.[11]

Exodus  18.26 (4Q22) 26 They judged the people at all times. They brought the hard causes to Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves.

Exodus  18.27 (4Q22) 27 Moses let his father-in-law depart, and he went his way into his own land.




Chapter 19

Exodus  19.01 (4Q22) 1 In the third month after the children of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on that same day they came into the wilderness of Sinai.

Exodus  19.07 (4Q22) 7 Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and set before them all these words which Yahweh commanded him.

Exodus  19.08 (4Q22) 08 All the people answered together, and said, “All that Yahweh has spoken we will do.” Moses reported the words of the people to Yahweh.

Exodus  19.09 (2Q3 ) 9 Yahweh said to Moses, “Behold, I come to you in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe you forever.” Moses told the words of the people to Yahweh.

Exodus  19.10 (4Q22) 10 Yahweh said to Moses, “Go to the people, and sanctify them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments,

Exodus  19.11 (4Q22) 11 and be ready for the third day; for on the third day Yahweh will come down in the sight of all the people on Mount Sinai.

Exodus  19.12 (4Q22) 12 You shall set bounds to the people all around, saying, ‘Be careful that you don’t go up onto the mountain, or touch its border. Whoever touches the mountain shall be surely put to death.

Exodus  19.13 (4Q22) 13 No hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned or shot through; whether it is animal or man, he shall not live.’ When the trumpet sounds long, they shall come up to the mountain.”

Exodus  19.14 (4Q22) 14 Moses went down from the mountain to the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their clothes.

Exodus  19.15 (4Q22) 15 He said to the people, “Be ready by the third day. Don’t have sexual relations with a woman.”

Exodus  19.16 (4Q22) 16 On the third day, when it was morning, there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud on the mountain, and the sound of an exceedingly loud trumpet; and all the people who were in the camp trembled.

Exodus  19.17 (4Q22) 17 Moses led the people out of the camp to meet God; and they stood at the lower part of the mountain.

Exodus  19.23 (4Q22) 23 Moses said to Yahweh, “The people can’t come up to Mount Sinai, for you warned us, saying, ‘Set bounds around the mountain, and sanctify it.’ ”

Exodus  19.24 (1Q2 ) 24 Yahweh said to him, “Go down! You shall bring Aaron up with you, but don’t let the priests and the people break through to come up to Yahweh, lest he break out against them.”

Exodus  19.25 (1Q2 ) 25 So Moses went down to the people, and told them.




Chapter 20

Exodus  20.01 (1Q2 ) 1 God spoke all these words, saying,

Exodus  20.03 (1Q2 ) 3 “You shall have no other gods before me.

Exodus  20.05 (1Q2 ) 5 you shall not bow yourself down to them, nor serve them, for I, Yahweh your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and on the fourth generation of those who hate me,

Exodus  20.06 (1Q2 ) 06 and showing loving kindness to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.

Exodus  20.18 (4Q22) 18 All the people perceived the thunderings, the lightnings, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking. When the people saw it, they trembled, and stayed at a distance.

Exodus  20.19 (4Q22) 19 They said to Moses, “Speak with us yourself, and we will listen;  “Behold, Yahweh our God has shown us his glory and his greatness, and we have heard his voice out of the middle of the fire. We have seen today that God does speak with man, and he lives. Now therefore, why should we die? For this great fire will consume us. If we hear Yahweh our God’s voice any more, then we shall die. For who is there of all flesh, that has heard the voice of the living God speaking out of the middle of the fire, as we have, and lived? Go near, and hear all that Yahweh our God shall say, and tell us all that Yahweh our God tells you; and we will hear it, and do it,[12] but don’t let God speak with us, lest we die.”

Exodus  20.25 (1Q2 ) 25 If you make me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of cut stones; for if you lift up your tool on it, you have polluted it.

Exodus  20.26 (1Q2 ) 26 You shall not go up by steps to my altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed to it.’




Chapter 21

Exodus  21.01 (1Q2 ) 01 “Now these are the ordinances which you shall set before them.

Exodus  21.02 (1Q2 ) 2 “If you buy a Hebrew servant, he shall serve six years and in the seventh he shall go out free without paying anything.

Exodus  21.04 (1Q2 ) 4 If his master gives him a wife and she bears him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself.

Exodus  21.05 (1Q2 ) 05 But if the servant shall plainly say, ‘I love my master, my wife, and my children. I will not go out free;’

Exodus  21.06 (4Q22) 06 then his master shall bring him to God, and shall bring him to the door or to the doorpost, and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl, and he shall serve him forever.

Exodus  21.13 (4Q22) 13 but not if it is unintentional, but God allows it to happen; then I will appoint you a place where he shall flee.

Exodus  21.14 (4Q22) 14 If a man schemes and comes presumptuously on his neighbor to kill him, you shall take him from my altar, that he may die.

Exodus  21.18 (2Q2 ) 18 “If men quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone, or with his fist, and he doesn’t die, but is confined to bed;

Exodus  21.19 (2Q2 ) 19 if he rises again and walks around with his staff, then he who struck him shall be cleared: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall provide for his healing until he is thoroughly healed.

Exodus  21.20 (2Q2 ) 20 “If a man strikes his servant or his maid with a rod, and he dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished.

Exodus  21.22 (4Q22) 22 “If men fight and hurt a pregnant woman so that she gives birth prematurely, and yet no harm follows, he shall be surely fined as much as the woman’s husband demands and the judges allow.

Exodus  21.24 (4Q22) 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,

Exodus  21.25 (4Q22) 25 burning for burning, wound for wound, and bruise for bruise.

Exodus  21.26 (4Q22) 26 “If a man strikes his servant’s eye, or his maid’s eye, and destroys it, he shall let him go free for his eye’s sake.

Exodus  21.27 (4Q22) 27 If he strikes out his male servant’s tooth, or his female servant’s tooth, he shall let the servant go free for his tooth’s sake.

Exodus  21.28 (4Q22) 28 “If a bull gores a man or a woman to death, the bull shall surely be stoned, and its meat shall not be eaten; but the owner of the bull shall not be held responsible.

Exodus  21.29 (4Q22) 29 But if the bull had a habit of goring in the past, and this has been testified to its owner, and he has not kept it in, but it has killed a man or a woman, the bull shall be stoned, and its owner shall also be put to death.

Exodus  21.30 (4Q22) 30 If a ransom is imposed on him, then he shall give for the redemption of his life whatever is imposed.

Exodus  21.31 (4Q22) 31 Whether it has gored a son or has gored a daughter, according to this judgment it shall be done to him.

Exodus  21.32 (4Q22) 32 If the bull gores a male servant or a female servant, thirty shekels of silver shall be given to their master, and the ox shall be stoned.




Chapter 22

Exodus  22.01 (2Q3 ) 1 “If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and kills it, or sells it; he shall pay five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep.

Exodus  22.02 (2Q3 ) 02 If the thief is found breaking in, and is struck so that he dies, there shall be no guilt of bloodshed for him.

Exodus  22.03 (2Q3 ) 03 If the sun has risen on him, guilt of bloodshed shall be for him; he shall make restitution. If he has nothing to make restitution, then he shall be sold for his theft.

Exodus  22.04 (4Q22) 4 If the stolen property is found in his hand alive, whether it is ox, donkey, or sheep, he shall pay double two for one[13].

Exodus  22.05 (4Q22) 05 “If a man causes a field or vineyard to be eaten by letting his animal loose, and it grazes in another man’s field, he shall make compensation from his own field according to his produce, but if the whole field is grazed over,[14] he shall make restitution from the best of his own field, and from the best of his own vineyard.

Exodus  22.07 (4Q22) 7 “If a man delivers to his neighbor money or stuff to keep, and it is stolen out of the man’s house, if the thief is found, he shall pay double.

Exodus  22.08 (4Q22) 08 If the thief isn’t found, then the master of the house shall come near to God, to find out whether or not he has put his hand on his neighbor’s goods.

Exodus  22.12 (4Q22) 12 But if it is stolen from him, the one who stole shall make restitution to its owner.

Exodus  22.13 (4Q22) 13 If it is torn in pieces, let him bring it for evidence. He shall not make good that which was torn.

Exodus  22.14 (4Q22) 14 “If a man borrows anything of his neighbor’s, and it is injured, or dies, its owner not being with it, he shall surely make restitution.

Exodus  22.16 (2Q3 ) 16 “If a man entices a virgin who isn’t pledged to be married, and lies with her, he shall surely pay a dowry for her to be his wife.

Exodus  22.17 (2Q3 ) 17 If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.

Exodus  22.18 (2Q3 ) 18 “You shall not allow a sorceress to live.

Exodus  22.19 (4Q22) 19 “Whoever has sex with an animal shall surely be put to death.

Exodus  22.20 (2Q3 ) 20 “He who sacrifices to any god, except to Yahweh only, shall be utterly destroyed.

Exodus  22.21 (4Q22) 21 “You shall not wrong an alien or oppress him, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt.

Exodus  22.23 (4Q22) 23 If you take advantage of them at all, and they cry at all to me, I will surely hear their cry;

Exodus  22.24 (4Q22) 24 and my wrath will grow hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.

Exodus  22.25 (4Q22) 25 “If you lend money to any of my people with you who is poor, you shall not be to him as a creditor. You shall not charge him interest.

Exodus  22.26 (4Q22) 26 If you take your neighbor’s garment as collateral, you shall restore it to him before the sun goes down,

Exodus  22.27 (4Q22) 27 for that is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin. What would he sleep in? It will happen, when he cries to me, that I will hear, for I am gracious.

Exodus  22.28 (4Q22) 28 “You shall not blaspheme God, nor curse a ruler of your people.

Exodus  22.29 (4Q22) 29 “You shall not delay to offer from your harvest and from the outflow of your presses. “You shall give the firstborn of your sons to me.

Exodus  22.30 (4Q22) 30 You shall do likewise with your cattle and with your sheep. It shall be with its mother seven days, then on the eighth day you shall give it to me.

Exodus  22.31 (4Q22) 31 “You shall be holy men to me, therefore you shall not eat any meat that is torn by animals in the field. You shall cast it to the dogs.




Chapter 23

Exodus  23.14 (4Q22) 14 “You shall observe a feast to me three times a year.

Exodus  23.15 (4Q22) 15 You shall observe the feast of unleavened bread. Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month Abib (for in it you came out of Egypt), and no one shall appear before me empty.

Exodus  23.16 (4Q22) 16 And the feast of harvest, the first fruits of your labors, which you sow in the field; and the feast of ingathering, at the end of the year, when you gather in your labors out of the field.

Exodus  23.29 (4Q22) 29 I will not drive them out from before you in one year, lest the land become desolate, and the animals of the field multiply against you.

Exodus  23.30 (4Q22) 30 Little by little I will drive them out from before you, until you have increased and inherit the land.

Exodus  23.31 (4Q22) 31 I will set your border from the Red Sea even to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the River; for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you shall drive them out before you.




Chapter 24

Exodus  24.01 (4Q22) 1 He said to Moses, “Come up to Yahweh, you, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar and Itamar[15], and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship from a distance.

Exodus  24.02 (4Q22) 02 Moses alone shall come near to Yahweh, but they shall not come near. The people shall not go up with him.”

Exodus  24.03 (4Q22) 3 Moses came and told the people all Yahweh’s words, and all the ordinances; and all the people answered with one voice, and said, “All the words which Yahweh has spoken will we do.”

Exodus  24.04 (4Q22) 4 Moses wrote all Yahweh’s words, then rose up early in the morning and built an altar at the base of the mountain, with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel.

Exodus  24.06 (4Q22) 6 Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar.

Exodus  24.07 (4Q22) 07 He took the book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people, and they said, “We will do be obedient to all that Yahweh has said, and be obedient do it.”

Exodus  24.08 (4Q22) 8 Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “Look, this is the blood of the covenant, which Yahweh has made with you concerning all these words.”

Exodus  24.09 (4Q22) 9 Then Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, Itamar[16] and seventy of the elders of Israel went up.

Exodus  24.10 (4Q22) 10 They saw the God of Israel. Under his feet was like a paved work of sapphire stone, like the skies for clearness.

Exodus  24.11 (4Q22) 11 He didn’t lay his hand on the nobles of the children of Israel. They saw God, and ate and drank.




Chapter 25

Exodus  25.12 (4Q22) 12 You shall cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in its four feet. Two rings shall be on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it.

Exodus  25.20 (4Q22) 20 The cherubim shall spread out their wings upward, covering the mercy seat with their wings, with their faces toward one another. The faces of the cherubim shall be toward the mercy seat.

Exodus  25.21 (4Q22) 21 You shall put the mercy seat on top of the ark, and in the ark you shall put the covenant that I will give you.

Exodus  25.22 (4Q22) 22 There I will meet with you, and I will tell you from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim which are on the ark of the covenant, all that I command you for the children of Israel.

Exodus  25.23 (4Q22) 23 “You shall make a table of acacia wood. Its length shall be two cubits, and its width a cubit, and its height one and a half cubits.

Exodus  25.24 (4Q22) 24 You shall overlay it with pure gold, and make a gold molding around it.

Exodus  25.25 (4Q22) 25 You shall make a rim of a hand width around it. You shall make a golden molding on its rim around it.

Exodus  25.26 (4Q22) 26 You shall make four rings of gold for it, and put the rings in the four corners that are on its four feet.

Exodus  25.27 (4Q22) 27 the rings shall be close to the rim, for places for the poles to carry the table.

Exodus  25.28 (4Q22) 28 You shall make the poles of acacia wood, and overlay them with gold, that the table may be carried with them.

Exodus  25.29 (4Q22) 29 You shall make its dishes, its spoons, its ladles, and its bowls to pour out offerings with. You shall make them of pure gold.

Exodus  25.31 (4Q22) 31 “You shall make a lamp stand of pure gold. The lamp stand shall be made of hammered work. Its base, its shaft, its cups, its buds, and its flowers shall be of one piece with it.

Exodus  25.32 (4Q22) 32 There shall be six branches going out of its sides: three branches of the lamp stand out of its one side, and three branches of the lamp stand out of its other side;

Exodus  25.33 (4Q22) 33 three cups made like almond blossoms in one branch, a bud and a flower; and three cups made like almond blossoms in the other branch, a bud and a flower, so for the six branches going out of the lamp stand;

Exodus  25.34 (4Q22) 34 and in the lamp stand four cups made like almond blossoms, its buds and its flowers;




Chapter 26

Exodus  26.08 (4Q22) 8 The length of each curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the width of each curtain four cubits: the eleven curtains shall have one measure.

Exodus  26.09 (4Q22) 09 You shall couple five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves, and shall double over the sixth curtain in the forefront of the tent.

Exodus  26.10 (4Q22) 10 You shall make fifty loops[17] on the edge of the one curtain that is outermost in the coupling, and fifty loops on the edge of the curtain which is outermost in the second coupling.

Exodus  26.11 (2Q2 ) 11 You shall make fifty clasps of brass, and put the clasps into the loops, and couple the tent together, that it may be one.

Exodus  26.12 (2Q2 ) 12 The overhanging part that remains of the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that remains, shall hang over the back of the tabernacle.

Exodus  26.13 (2Q2 ) 13 The cubit on the one side, and the cubit on the other side, of that which remains in the length of the curtains of the tent, shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle on this side and on that side, to cover it.

Exodus  26.14 (4Q22) 14 You shall make a covering for the tent of rams’ skins dyed red, and a covering of sea cow hides above.

Exodus  26.15 (4Q22) 15 “You shall make the boards for the tabernacle of acacia wood, standing upright.

Exodus  26.16 (4Q22) 16 Ten cubits shall be the length of a board, and one and a half cubits the width of each board.

Exodus  26.21 (4Q22) 21 and their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board.

Exodus  26.22 (4Q22) 22 For the far side of the tabernacle westward you shall make six boards.

Exodus  26.23 (4Q22) 23 You shall make two boards for the corners of the tabernacle in the far side.

Exodus  26.24 (4Q22) 24 They shall be double beneath, and in the same way they shall be whole to its top to one ring: thus shall it be for them both; they shall be for the two corners.

Exodus  26.25 (4Q22) 25 There shall be eight boards, and their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board.

Exodus  26.26 (4Q22) 26 “You shall make bars of acacia wood: five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle,

Exodus  26.27 (4Q22) 27 and five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the side of the tabernacle, for the far side westward.

Exodus  26.28 (4Q22) 28 The middle bar in the middle of the boards shall pass through from end to end.

Exodus  26.29 (4Q22) 29 You shall overlay the boards with gold, and make their rings of gold for places for the bars. You shall overlay the bars with gold.

Exodus  26.30 (4Q22) 30 You shall set up the tabernacle according to the way that it was shown to you on the mountain.

Exodus  26.36 (4Q22) 26:36 “You shall make a screen for the door of the Tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of the embroiderer.




Chapter 27

Exodus  27.01 (4Q22) 1 “You shall make the altar of acacia wood, five cubits long, and five cubits wide. The altar shall be square. Its height shall be three cubits.

Exodus  27.02 (4Q22) 02 You shall make its horns on its four corners. Its horns shall be of one piece with it. You shall overlay it with bronze.

Exodus  27.03 (4Q22) 03 You shall make its pots to take away its ashes; and its shovels, its basins, its meat hooks, and its fire pans. You shall make all its vessels of bronze.

Exodus  27.09 (4Q22) 9 “You shall make the court of the tabernacle: for the south side southward there shall be hangings for the court of fine twined linen one hundred cubits long for one side.

Exodus  27.10 (4Q22) 10 Its pillars shall be twenty, and their sockets twenty, of bronze. The hooks of the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver.

Exodus  27.11 (4Q22) 11 Likewise for the length of the north side, there shall be hangings one hundred cubits long, and its pillars twenty, and their sockets twenty, of bronze; the hooks of the pillars, and their fillets, of silver.

Exodus  27.12 (4Q22) 12 For the width of the court on the west side shall be hangings of fifty cubits; their pillars ten, and their sockets ten.

Exodus  27.13 (4Q22) 13 The width of the court on the east side eastward shall be fifty cubits.

Exodus  27.14 (4Q22) 14 The hangings for the one side of the gate shall be fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and their sockets three.

Exodus  27.16 (2Q3 ) 16 For the gate of the court shall be a screen of twenty cubits, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of the embroiderer; their pillars four, and their sockets four.

Exodus  27.17 (2Q3 ) 17 All the pillars of the court around shall be filleted with silver; their hooks of silver, and their sockets of brass.

Exodus  27.18 (2Q3 ) 18 The length of the court shall be one hundred cubits, and the width fifty throughout, and the height five cubits, of fine twined linen, and their sockets of brass.

Exodus  27.19 (2Q3 ) 19 All the instruments of the tabernacle in all its service, and all its pins, and all the pins of the court, shall be of brass.




Chapter 28

Exodus  28.03 (4Q22) 3 You shall speak to all who are wise-hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they make Aaron’s garments to sanctify him, that he may minister to me in the priest’s office.

Exodus  28.04 (7Q1 ) 4 These are the garments which they shall make: a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a coat of checker work, a turban, and a sash: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron your brother, and his sons, that he may minister to me in the priest’s office.[1]

Exodus  28.05 (7Q1 ) 05 They shall take the gold, and the blue, and the purple, and the scarlet, and the fine linen.

Exodus  28.06 (7Q1 ) 06 “They shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of the skillful workman.

Exodus  28.07 (7Q1 ) 07 It shall have two shoulder straps joined to the two ends of it, that it may be joined together.

Exodus  28.08 (4Q22) 8 The skillfully woven band, which is on it, shall be like its work and of the same piece; of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen.

Exodus  28.09 (4Q22) 09 You shall take two onyx stones, and engrave on them the names of the children of Israel.

Exodus  28.10 (4Q22) 10 Six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the six that remain on the other stone, in the order of their birth.

Exodus  28.11 (4Q22) 11 With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet, and you shall engrave the two stones, according to the names of the children of Israel. You shall make them to be enclosed in settings of gold.

Exodus  28.12 (4Q22) 12 You shall put the two stones on the shoulder straps of the ephod, to be stones of memorial for the children of Israel. Aaron shall bear their names before Yahweh on his two shoulders for a memorial.

Exodus  28.22 (4Q22) 22 You shall make on the breastplate chains like cords, of braided work of pure gold.

Exodus  28.23 (4Q22) 23 You shall make on the breastplate two rings of gold, and shall put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate.

Exodus  28.24 (4Q22) 24 You shall put the two braided chains of gold in the two rings at the ends of the breastplate.

Exodus  28.26 (4Q22) 26 You shall make two rings of gold, and you shall put them on the two ends of the breastplate, on its edge, which is toward the side of the ephod inward.

Exodus  28.27 (4Q22) 27 You shall make two rings of gold, and shall put them on the two shoulder straps of the ephod underneath, in its forepart, close by its coupling, above the skillfully woven band of the ephod.

Exodus  28.28 (4Q22) 28 They shall bind the breastplate by its rings to the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be on the skillfully woven band of the ephod, and that the breastplate may not swing out from the ephod.

Exodus  28.30 (4Q22) 30 You shall put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be on Aaron’s heart, when he goes in before Yahweh. Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel on his heart before Yahweh continually.

Exodus  28.31 (4Q22) 31 “You shall make the robe of the ephod all of blue.

Exodus  28.32 (4Q22) 32 It shall have a hole for the head in the middle of it. It shall have a binding of woven work around its hole, as it were the hole of a coat of mail, that it not be torn.

Exodus  28.33 (4Q22) 33 On its hem you shall make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, all around its hem; with bells of gold between and around them:

Exodus  28.34 (4Q22) 34 a golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, around the hem of the robe.

Exodus  28.35 (4Q22) 35 It shall be on Aaron to minister: and its sound shall be heard when he goes in to the holy place before Yahweh, and when he comes out, that he not die.

Exodus  28.36 (4Q22) 36 “You shall make a plate of pure gold, and engrave on it, like the engravings of a signet, ‘HOLY TO YAHWEH.’

Exodus  28.38 (4Q22) 38 It shall be on Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall make holy in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always on his forehead, that they may be accepted before Yahweh.

Exodus  28.39 (4Q22) 39 You shall weave the tunic with fine linen. You shall make a turban of fine linen. You shall make a sash, the work of the embroiderer.

Exodus  28.40 (4Q22) 40 “You shall make tunics for Aaron’s sons. You shall make sashes for them. You shall make headbands for them, for glory and for beauty.

Exodus  28.41 (4Q22) 41 You shall put them on Aaron your brother, and on his sons with him, and shall anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister to me in the priest’s office.

Exodus  28.42 (4Q22) 42 You shall make them linen pants to cover their naked flesh. They shall reach from the waist even to the thighs.

Exodus  28.43 (4Q22) 43 They shall be on Aaron and on his sons, when they go in to the Tent of Meeting, or when they come near to the altar to minister in the holy place, that they don’t bear iniquity, and die. This shall be a statute forever to him and to his offspring after him.




Chapter 29

Exodus  29.01 (4Q22) 1 “This is the thing that you shall do to them to make them holy, to minister to me in the priest’s office: take one young bull and two rams without defect,

Exodus  29.02 (4Q22) 02 unleavened bread, unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil[20]. You shall make them of fine wheat flour.

Exodus  29.03 (4Q22) 03 You shall put them into one basket, and bring them in the basket, with the bull and the two rams.

Exodus  29.04 (4Q22) 04 You shall bring Aaron and his sons to the door of the Tent of Meeting, and shall wash them with water.

Exodus  29.05 (4Q22) 05 You shall take the garments, and put on Aaron the tunic, the robe of the ephod, the ephod, and the breastplate, and clothe him with the skillfully woven band of the ephod.

Exodus  29.20 (4Q22) 20 Then you shall kill the ram, and take some of its blood, and put it on the tip of the right ear of Aaron, and on the tip of the right ear of his sons, and on the thumb of their right hand, and on the big toe of their right foot; and sprinkle the blood around on the altar.

Exodus  29.21 (4Q22) 21 You shall take of the blood that is on the altar, and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it on Aaron, and on his garments, and on his sons, and on the garments of his sons with him: and he shall be made holy, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons’ garments with him.[21]

Exodus  29.22 (4Q22) 22 Also you shall take some of the ram’s fat, the fat tail, the fat that covers the innards, the cover of the liver, the two kidneys, the fat that is on them, and the right thigh (for it is a ram of consecration),

Exodus  29.23 (4Q22) 23 and one loaf of bread, one cake of oiled bread, and one wafer out of the basket of unleavened bread that is before Yahweh.

Exodus  29.24 (4Q22) 24 You shall put all of this in Aaron’s hands, and in his sons’ hands, and shall wave them for a wave offering before Yahweh.

Exodus  29.25 (4Q22) 25 You shall take them from their hands, and burn them on the altar on the burnt offering, for a pleasant aroma before Yahweh: it is an offering made by fire to Yahweh.

Exodus  29.31 (4Q22) 31 “You shall take the ram of consecration and boil its meat in a holy place.

Exodus  29.32 (4Q22) 32 Aaron and his sons shall eat the meat of the ram, and the bread that is in the basket, at the door of the Tent of Meeting.

Exodus  29.33 (4Q22) 33 They shall eat those things with which atonement was made, to consecrate and sanctify them; but a stranger shall not eat of it, because they are holy.

Exodus  29.34 (4Q22) 34 If anything of the meat of the consecration, or of the bread, remains to the morning, then you shall burn the remainder with fire. It shall not be eaten, because it is holy.

Exodus  29.35 (4Q22) 35 “You shall do so to Aaron and to his sons, according to all that I have commanded you. You shall consecrate them seven days.

Exodus  29.36 (4Q22) 36 Every day you shall offer the bull of sin offering for atonement. You shall cleanse the altar when you make atonement for it. You shall anoint it, to sanctify it.

Exodus  29.37 (4Q22) 37 Seven days you shall make atonement for the altar, and sanctify it; and the altar shall be most holy. Whatever touches the altar shall be holy.

Exodus  29.38 (4Q22) 38 “Now this is that which you shall offer on the altar: two lambs a year old day by day continually.

Exodus  29.39 (4Q22) 39 The one lamb you shall offer in the morning; and the other lamb you shall offer at evening;

Exodus  29.40 (4Q22) 40 and with the one lamb a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mixed with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil, and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a drink offering.

Exodus  29.41 (4Q22) 41 The other lamb you shall offer at evening, and shall do to it according to the meal offering of the morning and according to its drink offering, for a pleasant aroma, an offering made by fire to Yahweh.




Chapter 30

Exodus  30.09 (4Q22) 30:9[18] You shall offer no strange incense on it, nor burnt offering, nor meal offering; and you shall pour no drink offering on it. Exodus

Exodus  30.10 (4Q22) 30:10 Aaron shall make atonement on its horns once in the year; with the blood of the sin offering of atonement once in the year he shall make atonement for it throughout your generations. It is most holy to Yahweh.”

Exodus  30.12 (4Q22) 12 “When you take a census of the children of Israel, according to those who are counted among them, then each man shall give a ransom for his soul to Yahweh, when you count them; that there be no plague among them when you count them.

Exodus  30.13 (4Q22) 13 They shall give this, everyone who passes over to those who are counted, half a shekel according to the shekel of the sanctuary (the shekel is twenty gerahs); half a shekel for an offering to Yahweh.

Exodus  30.14 (4Q22) 14 Everyone who passes over to those who are counted, from twenty years old and upward, shall give the offering to Yahweh.

Exodus  30.15 (4Q22) 15 The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, than the half shekel, when they give the offering of Yahweh, to make atonement for your souls.

Exodus  30.16 (4Q22) 16 You shall take the atonement money from the children of Israel, and shall appoint it for the service of the Tent of Meeting; that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before Yahweh, to make atonement for your souls.”

Exodus  30.17 (4Q22) 17 Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,

Exodus  30.18 (4Q22) 18 “You shall also make a basin of bronze, and its base of bronze, in which to wash. You shall put it between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and you shall put water in it.

Exodus  30.21 (2Q2 ) 21 So they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they not die: and it shall be a statute forever to them, even to him and to his descendants throughout their generations.”

Exodus  30.23 (2Q2 ) 23 “Also take fine spices: of liquid myrrh, five hundred shekels; and of fragrant cinnamon half as much, even two hundred and fifty; and of fragrant cane, two hundred and fifty;

Exodus  30.24 (2Q2 ) 24 and of cassia five hundred, after the shekel of the sanctuary; and a hin of olive oil.

Exodus  30.25 (2Q2 ) 25 You shall make it into a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

Exodus  30.29 (4Q22) 29 You shall sanctify them, that they may be most holy. Whatever touches them shall be holy.

Exodus  30.30 (4Q22) 30 You shall anoint Aaron and his sons, and sanctify them, that they may minister to me in the priest’s office.

Exodus  30.31 (4Q22) 31 You shall speak to the children of Israel, saying, ‘This shall be a holy anointing oil to me throughout your generations.

Exodus  30.34 (4Q22) 34 Yahweh said to Moses, “Take to yourself sweet spices, gum resin, onycha, and galbanum; sweet spices with pure frankincense. There shall be an equal weight of each.

Exodus  30.35 (4Q22) 35 You shall make incense of it, a perfume after the art of the perfumer, seasoned with salt, pure and holy.

Exodus  30.36 (4Q22) 36 You shall beat some of it very small, and put some of it before the covenant in the Tent of Meeting, where I will meet with you. It shall be to you most holy.

Exodus  30.37 (4Q22) 37 The incense which you shall make, according to its composition you shall not make for yourselves: it shall be to you holy for Yahweh.

Exodus  30.38 (4Q22) 38 Whoever shall make any like that, to smell of it, he shall be cut off from his people.”




Chapter 31

Exodus  31.01 (4Q22) 1 Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,

Exodus  31.02 (4Q22) 02 “Behold, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah.

Exodus  31.03 (4Q22) 03 I have filled him with the Spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all kinds of workmanship,

Exodus  31.04 (4Q22) 04 to devise skillful works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in bronze,

Exodus  31.05 (4Q22) 05 and in cutting of stones for setting, and in carving of wood, to work in all kinds of workmanship.

Exodus  31.06 (4Q22) 06 Behold, I myself have appointed with him Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan; and in the heart of all who are wise-hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded you:

Exodus  31.07 (4Q22) 07 the Tent of Meeting, the ark of the covenant, the mercy seat that is on it, all the furniture of the Tent,

Exodus  31.08 (4Q22) 08 the table and its vessels, the pure lamp stand with all its vessels, the altar of incense,

Exodus  31.12 (4Q22) 12 Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,

Exodus  31.13 (4Q22) 13 “Speak also to the children of Israel, saying, ‘Most certainly you shall keep my Sabbaths; for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations, that you may know that I am Yahweh who sanctifies you.

Exodus  31.14 (4Q22) 14 You shall keep the Sabbath therefore, for it is holy to you. Everyone who profanes it shall surely be put to death; for whoever does any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people.

Exodus  31.15 (4Q22) 15 Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day is a Sabbath of solemn rest, holy to Yahweh. Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day shall surely be put to death.

Exodus  31.16 (2Q3 ) 16 Therefore the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath to Yahweh, to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.

Exodus  31.17 (2Q3 ) 17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel forever; for in six days Yahweh made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.’”




Chapter 32

Exodus  32.02 (4Q22) 2 Aaron said to them, “Take off the golden rings, which are in the ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring them to me.”

Exodus  32.03 (4Q22) 3 All the people took off the golden rings which were in their ears, and brought them to Aaron.

Exodus  32.04 (4Q22) 04 He received what they handed him, fashioned it with an engraving tool, and made it a molded calf. Then they said, “These are your gods, Israel, which brought you up out of the land of Egypt.”

Exodus  32.05 (4Q22) 5 When Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made a proclamation, and said, “Tomorrow shall be a feast to Yahweh.”

Exodus  32.06 (4Q22) 6 They rose up early on the next day, and offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play.

Exodus  32.07 (4Q22) 7 Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, “Go, get down; for your people, who you brought up out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves!

Exodus  32.08 (4Q22) 08 They have turned away quickly out of the way which I commanded them. They have made themselves a molded calf, and have worshiped it, and have sacrificed to it, and said, ‘These are your gods, Israel, which brought you up out of the land of Egypt.’ ”

Exodus  32.10 (4Q22) 10 Now therefore leave me alone, that my wrath may burn hot against them, and that I may consume them; and I will make of you a great nation.” And Yahweh was very angry enough with Aaron to destroy him; and Moses prayed for Aaron.[22]

Exodus  32.11 (4Q22) 11 Moses begged Yahweh his God, and said, “Yahweh, why does your wrath burn hot against your people, that you have brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand arm?

Exodus  32.12 (4Q22) 12 Why should the Egyptians talk, saying, ‘He brought them out for evil, to kill them in the mountains, and to consume them from the surface of the earth?’ Turn from your fierce wrath, and turn away from this evil against your people.

Exodus  32.13 (4Q22) 13 Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, your servants, to whom you swore by your own self, and said to them, ‘I will multiply your offspring as the stars of the sky, and all this land that I have spoken of I will give to your offspring, and they shall inherit it forever.’ ”

Exodus  32.14 (4Q22) 14 So Yahweh turned away from the evil which he said he would do to his people.

Exodus  32.15 (4Q22) 15 Moses turned, and went down from the mountain, with the two tablets of the covenant in his hand; tablets that were written on both their sides. They were written on one side and on the other.

Exodus  32.16 (4Q22) 16 The tablets were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, engraved on the tablets.

Exodus  32.17 (4Q22) 17 When Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted, he said to Moses, “There is the noise of war in the camp.”

Exodus  32.18 (4Q22) 18 He said, “It isn’t the voice of those who shout for victory. It is not the voice of those who cry for being overcome; but the noise of those who sing that I hear.”

Exodus  32.19 (4Q22) 19 As soon as he came near to the camp, he saw the calf and the dancing. Then Moses’ anger grew hot, and he threw the tablets out of his hands, and broke them beneath the mountain.

Exodus  32.25 (4Q22) 25 When Moses saw that the people were out of control, (for Aaron had let them lose control, causing derision among their enemies),

Exodus  32.26 (4Q22) 26 then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, “Whoever is on Yahweh’s side, come to me!” All the sons of Levi gathered themselves together to him.

Exodus  32.27 (4Q22) 27 He said to them, “Yahweh, the God of Israel, says, ‘Every man put his sword on his thigh, and go back and forth from gate to gate throughout the camp, and every man kill his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbor.’ ”

Exodus  32.28 (4Q22) 28 The sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses. About three thousand men fell of the people that day.

Exodus  32.29 (4Q22) 29 Moses said, “Consecrate yourselves today to Yahweh, for every man was against his son and against his brother, that he may give you a blessing today.”

Exodus  32.30 (4Q22) 30 On the next day, Moses said to the people, “You have sinned a great sin. Now I will go up to Yahweh. Perhaps I shall make atonement for your sin.”

Exodus  32.32 (2Q2 ) 32 Yet now, if you will, forgive their sin—and if not, please blot me out of your book which you have written.”

Exodus  32.33 (2Q2 ) 33 Yahweh said to Moses, “Whoever has sinned against me, him I will blot out of my book.

Exodus  32.34 (2Q2 ) 34 Now go, lead the people to the place of which I have spoken to you. Behold, my angel shall go before you. Nevertheless in the day when I punish, I will punish them for their sin.”




Chapter 33

Exodus  33.12 (4Q22) 12 Moses said to Yahweh, “Behold, you tell me, ‘Bring up this people;’ and you haven’t let me know whom you will send with me. Yet you have said, ‘I know you by name, and you have also found favor in my sight.’

Exodus  33.13 (4Q22) 13 Now therefore, if I have found favor in your sight, please show me your way, now, that I may know you, so that I may find favor in your sight; and consider that this nation is your people.”

Exodus  33.15 (4Q22) 15 Moses said to him, “If your presence doesn’t go with me, don’t carry us up from here.

Exodus  33.16 (4Q22) 16 For how would people know that I have found favor in your sight, I and your people? Isn’t it that you go with us, so that we are separated, I and your people, from all the people who are on the surface of the earth?”

Exodus  33.17 (4Q22) 17 Yahweh said to Moses, “I will do this thing also that you have spoken; for you have found favor in my sight, and I know you by name.”

Exodus  33.18 (4Q22) 18 Moses said, “Please show me your glory.”

Exodus  33.19 (4Q22) 19 He said, “I will make all my goodness pass before you, and will proclaim Yahweh’s name before you. I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.”

Exodus  33.20 (4Q22) 20 He said, “You cannot see my face, for man may not see me and live.”

Exodus  33.21 (4Q22) 21 Yahweh also said, “Behold, there is a place by me, and you shall stand on the rock.

Exodus  33.22 (4Q22) 22 It will happen, while my glory passes by, that I will put you in a cleft of the rock, and will cover you with my hand until I have passed by;

Exodus  33.23 (4Q22) 23 then I will take away my hand, and you will see my back; but my face shall not be seen.”




Chapter 34

Exodus  34.01 (4Q22) 1 Yahweh said to Moses, “Chisel two stone tablets like the first. I will write on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, which you broke.

Exodus  34.02 (4Q22) 02 Be ready by the morning, and come up in the morning to Mount Sinai, and present yourself there to me on the top of the mountain.

Exodus  34.03 (4Q22) 03 No one shall come up with you or be seen anywhere on the mountain. Do not let the flocks or herds graze in front of that mountain.”

Exodus  34.10 (2Q3 ) 10 He Yahweh said to Moses, “Behold, I make a covenant: before all your people I will do marvels, such as have not been worked in all the earth, nor in any nation; and all the people among which you are shall see the work of Yahweh; for it is an awesome thing that I do with you.

Exodus  34.11 (4Q22) 11 Observe that which I command you today. Behold, I will drive out before you the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Girgashite,[23] the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite.

Exodus  34.12 (4Q22) 12 Be careful, lest you make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land where you are going, lest it be for a snare among you;

Exodus  34.13 (4Q22) 13 but you shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and you shall cut down their Asherah poles;

Exodus  34.15 (4Q22) 15 “Don’t make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, lest they play the prostitute after their gods, and sacrifice to their gods, and one call you and you eat of his sacrifice;

Exodus  34.16 (4Q22) 16 and you take of their daughters to your sons, and their daughters play the prostitute after their gods, and make your sons play the prostitute after their gods.

Exodus  34.17 (4Q22) 17 “You shall make no cast idols for yourselves.

Exodus  34.18 (4Q22) 18 “You shall keep the feast of unleavened bread. Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month Abib; for in the month Abib you came out of Egypt.

Exodus  34.20 (4Q22) 20 You shall redeem the firstborn of a donkey with a lamb. If you will not redeem it, then you shall break its neck. You shall redeem all the firstborn of your sons. No one shall appear before me empty.

Exodus  34.21 (4Q22) 21 “Six days you shall work, but on the seventh day you shall rest: in plowing time and in harvest you shall rest.

Exodus  34.22 (4Q22) 22 “You shall observe the feast of weeks with the first fruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of harvest at the year’s end.

Exodus  34.23 (4Q22) 23 Three times in the year all your males shall appear before the Lord Yahweh, the God of Israel.

Exodus  34.24 (4Q22) 24 For I will drive out nations before you and enlarge your borders; neither shall any man desire your land when you go up to appear before Yahweh, your God, three times in the year.

Exodus  34.27 (4Q22) 27 Yahweh said to Moses, “Write these words; for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.”

Exodus  34.28 (4Q22) 28 He was there with Yahweh forty days and forty nights; he neither ate bread, nor drank water. He wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.





Chapter 35

Exodus  35.01 (4Q22) 1 Moses assembled all the congregation of the children of Israel, and said to them, “These are the words which Yahweh has commanded, that you should do them.




Chapter 36

Exodus  36.09 (4Q21) 9 The length of each curtain was twenty-eight cubits, and the width of each curtain four cubits. All the curtains had one measure.

Exodus  36.10 (4Q21) 10 He coupled five curtains to one another, and the other five curtains he coupled to one another.

Exodus  36.21 (4Q22) 21 Ten cubits was the length of a board, and a cubit and a half the width of each board.

Exodus  36.22 (4Q22) 22 Each board had two tenons, joined to one another. He made all the boards of the tabernacle this way.

Exodus  36.23 (4Q22) 23 He made the boards for the tabernacle, twenty boards for the south side southward.

Exodus  36.24 (4Q22) 24 He made forty sockets of silver under the twenty boards: two sockets under one board for its two tenons, and two sockets under another board for its two tenons.




Chapter 37

Exodus  37.09 (4Q22) 9 The cherubim spread out their wings above, covering the mercy seat with their wings, with their faces toward one another. The faces of the cherubim were toward the mercy seat.

Exodus  37.10 (4Q22) 10 He made the table of acacia wood. Its length was two cubits, and its width was a cubit, and its height was a cubit and a half.

Exodus  37.11 (4Q22) 11 He overlaid it with pure gold, and made a gold molding around it.

Exodus  37.12 (4Q22) 12 He made a border of a hand’s width around it, and made a golden molding on its border around it.

Exodus  37.13 (4Q22) 13 He cast four rings of gold for it, and put the rings in the four corners that were on its four feet.

Exodus  37.14 (4Q22) 14 The rings were close by the border, the places for the poles to carry the table.

Exodus  37.15 (4Q22) 15 He made the poles of acacia wood, and overlaid them with gold, to carry the table.

Exodus  37.16 (4Q22) 16 He made the vessels which were on the table, its dishes, its spoons, its bowls, and its pitchers with which to pour out, of pure gold.

Exodus  37.30 (4Q22) 30:1-10 in between Exodus




Chapter 38

Exodus  38.18 (4Q17) 18 The screen for the gate of the court was the work of the embroiderer, of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen. Twenty cubits was the length, and the height in the width was five cubits, like to the hangings of the court.

Exodus  38.19 (4Q17) 19 Their pillars were four, and their sockets four, of brass; their hooks of silver, and the overlaying of their capitals, and their fillets, of silver.

Exodus  38.20 (4Q17) 20 All the pins of the tabernacle, and around the court, were of brass.

Exodus  38.21 (4Q17) 21 This is the amount of material used for the tabernacle, even the Tabernacle of the Testimony, as they were counted, according to the commandment of Moses, for the service of the Levites, by the hand of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest.

Exodus  38.22 (4Q17) 22 Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that Yahweh commanded Moses.




Chapter 39

Exodus  39.03 (4Q17) 3 They beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires, to work it in with the blue, the purple, the scarlet, and the fine linen, the work of the skillful workman.

Exodus  39.04 (4Q17) 04 They made shoulder straps for it, joined together. At the two ends it was joined together.

Exodus  39.05 (4Q17) 05 The skillfully woven band that was on it, with which to fasten it on, was of the same piece, like its work; of gold, of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen; as Yahweh commanded Moses.

Exodus  39.06 (4Q17) 6 They worked the onyx stones, enclosed in settings of gold, engraved with the engravings of a signet, according to the names of the children of Israel.

Exodus  39.07 (4Q17) 07 He put them on the shoulder straps of the ephod, to be stones of memorial for the children of Israel, as Yahweh commanded Moses.

Exodus  39.08 (4Q17) 8 He made the breastplate, the work of a skillful workman, like the work of the ephod; of gold, of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen.

Exodus  39.09 (4Q17) 09 It was square. They made the breastplate double. Its length was a span, and its width a span, being double.

Exodus  39.10 (4Q17) 10 They set in it four rows of stones. A row of ruby, topaz, and beryl was the first row;

Exodus  39.11 (4Q17) 11 and the second row, a turquoise, a sapphire, and an emerald;

Exodus  39.13 (4Q17) 13 and the fourth row, a chrysolite, an onyx, and a jasper. They were enclosed in gold settings.

Exodus  39.14 (4Q17) 14 The stones were according to the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names; like the engravings of a signet, everyone according to his name, for the twelve tribes.

Exodus  39.15 (4Q17) 15 They made on the breastplate chains like cords, of braided work of pure gold.

Exodus  39.17 (4Q17) 17 They put the two braided chains of gold in the two rings at the ends of the breastplate.

Exodus  39.18 (4Q17) 18 The other two ends of the two braided chains they put on the two settings, and put them on the shoulder straps of the ephod, in its front.

Exodus  39.19 (4Q17) 19 They made two rings of gold, and put them on the two ends of the breastplate, on its edge, which was toward the side of the ephod inward.

Exodus  39.20 (4Q17) 20 They made two more rings of gold, and put them on the two shoulder straps of the ephod underneath, in its front, close by its coupling, above the skillfully woven band of the ephod.

Exodus  39.21 (4Q17) 21 They bound the breastplate by its rings to the rings of the ephod as Yahweh had commanded Moses, with a lace of blue, that it might be on the skillfully woven band on the inside of the ephod, and that the breastplate might not come loose from the ephod, as Yahweh commanded Moses, and he made the Urim and the Thummim as Yahweh had commanded Moses.

Exodus  39.22 (4Q17) 22 He made the robe of the ephod of woven work, all of blue.

Exodus  39.23 (4Q17) 23 The opening of the robe in the middle of it was like the opening of a coat of mail, with a binding around its opening, that it should not be torn.

Exodus  39.24 (4Q17) 24 They made on the skirts of the robe pomegranates of blue, purple, scarlet, and twined linen.




Chapter 40

Exodus  40.07 (4Q17) 7 You shall set the basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and shall put water therein.

Exodus  40.08 (4Q17) 08 You shall set up the court around it, and hang up the screen of the gate of the court.

Exodus  40.09 (4Q17) 9 “You shall take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is in it, and shall make it holy, and all its furniture: and it will be holy.

Exodus  40.10 (4Q17) 10 You shall anoint the altar of burnt offering, with all its vessels, and sanctify the altar: and the altar will be most holy.

Exodus  40.11 (4Q17) 11 You shall anoint the basin and its base, and sanctify it.

Exodus  40.12 (4Q17) 12 “You shall bring Aaron and his sons[1] to the door of the Tent of Meeting, and shall wash them with water.

Exodus  40.13 (4Q17) 13 You shall put on Aaron the holy garments; and you shall anoint him, and sanctify him, that he may minister to me in the priest’s office.

Exodus  40.14 (4Q17) 14 You shall bring his sons, and put the coats on them.

Exodus  40.15 (4Q17) 15 You shall anoint them, as you anointed their father, that they may minister to me in the priest’s office. Their anointing shall be to them for an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations.”

Exodus  40.16 (4Q17) 16 Moses did so. According to all that Yahweh commanded them him, so he did.

Exodus  40.17 (4Q17) 17 In the first month in the second year after the departure from Egypt, on the first day of the month, the tabernacle was raised up.

Exodus  40.18 (4Q17) 18 Moses He raised up the tabernacle, and laid its sockets, and set up its hooks and its boards, and put in its bars were put in, and raised up its pillars.

Exodus  40.19 (4Q17) 19 He spread The covering over the tent was put in, and he put the roof of the tabernacle above on it, as Yahweh commanded Moses.

Exodus  40.20 (4Q17) 20 He took and put the testimony and it was put into the ark, and set the poles on the ark, and put the mercy seat was put above on the ark.

Exodus  40.21 (4Q17) 21 He brought the ark into the tabernacle, and set up the veil of the screen, and screened the ark of the testimony, as Yahweh commanded Moses.

Exodus  40.22 (4Q17) 22 He put The table was put in into the Tent of Meeting, on the side of the tabernacle northward, outside of the veil.

Exodus  40.23 (4Q17) 23 He set the bread in order on it before Yahweh, as Yahweh commanded Moses.

Exodus  40.24 (4Q17) 24 He put the lamp stand in the Tent of Meeting, opposite the table, on the side of the tabernacle southward.

Exodus  40.25 (4Q17) 25 He lit the lamps before Yahweh, as Yahweh commanded Moses.

Exodus  40.26 (4Q17) 26 He put the golden altar in the Tent of Meeting before the veil;

Exodus  40.27 (4Q17) 27 and he burned incense of sweet spices on it before him, as Yahweh commanded Moses.

------------------------------------------

Exodus Dead Seas Scrolls - Divided by Scroll Number


1Q2 Exodus

Contents: Exodus 16:12-16; 19:24-20:6, 20:25-21:1-2, 4-5


Language: Hebrew

Date: Before 68 A.D.

Location: Qumran Cave 2

 

Exodus 16

12 “I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel. Speak to them, saying, ‘At evening you shall eat meat, and in the morning you shall be filled with bread: and you shall know that I am Yahweh your God.’”

13 In the evening, quail came up and covered the camp; and in the morning the dew lay around the camp. 14 When the dew that lay had gone, behold, on the surface of the wilderness was a small round thing, small as the frost on the ground. 15 When the children of Israel saw it, they said to one another, “What is it?” For they didn’t know what it was. Moses said to them, “It is the bread which Yahweh has given you to eat.” 16 This is the thing which Yahweh has commanded: “Gather of it everyone according to his eating; an omer a head, according to the number of your persons, you shall take it, every man for those who are in his tent.”

[..]

Exodus 19

24 Yahweh said to him, “Go down! You shall bring Aaron up with you, but don’t let the priests and the people break through to come up to Yahweh, lest he break out against them.”

25 So Moses went down to the people, and told them.

 

Exodus 20

1 God spoke all these words, saying,

[..]

3 “You shall have no other gods before me.

[..]

5 you shall not bow yourself down to them, nor serve them, for I, Yahweh your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and on the fourth generation of those who hate me, 6 and showing loving kindness to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.

[..]

25 If you make me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of cut stones; for if you lift up your tool on it, you have polluted it. 26 You shall not go up by steps to my altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed to it.’

 

Exodus 21

 1 “Now these are the ordinances which you shall set before them.

2 “If you buy a Hebrew servant, he shall serve six years and in the seventh he shall go out free without paying anything.

[..]

4 If his master gives him a wife and she bears him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself. 5 But if the servant shall plainly say, ‘I love my master, my wife, and my children. I will not go out free;’


2Q2 Exodusa

Contents: Exodus 1:11-13; 7:1-4; 9:27-29; 11:3-7; 12:32-41; 21:18-20; 26:11-13; 30:21, 23-25; 32:32-34


Language: Hebrew

Date: 30 B.C. - 68 A.D.

Location: Qumran Cave 2

 

Exodus 1

11 Therefore they set taskmasters over them to afflict them with their burdens. They built storage cities for Pharaoh: Pithom and Raamses. 12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and the more they spread out increased greatly. They were grieved because of the children of Israel. 13 The Egyptians ruthlessly made the children of Israel serve, 14 and they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all kinds of service in the field, all their service, in which they ruthlessly made them serve. They continued to multiply and increase greatly, and Egypt was in dread because of the children of Israel.

[..]

Exodus 7

1 Yahweh said to Moses, “Behold, I have made you as God to Pharaoh; and Aaron your brother shall be your prophet. 2 You shall speak all that I command you; and Aaron your brother shall speak to Pharaoh, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land. 3 I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt. 4 But Pharaoh will not listen to you, and I will lay my hand on Egypt, and bring out my armies, my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.

[..]

Exodus 9

27 Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said to them, “I have sinned this time. Yahweh is righteous, and I and my people are wicked. 28 Pray to Yahweh; for there has been enough of mighty thunderings and hail. I will let you go, and you shall stay no longer.”

29 Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands to Yahweh. The thunders shall cease, and there will not be any more hail; that you may know that the earth is Yahweh’s.

[..]

Exodus 11

3 Yahweh gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the midst of the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh’s servants, and in the sight of the people.

4 Moses said to Pharaoh, “This is what Yahweh says: ‘About midnight I will go out into the middle of Egypt, 5 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the female servant who is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of livestock. 6 There shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there has not been, nor shall be any more. 7 But against any of the children of Israel a dog won’t even bark or move its tongue, against man or animal; that you may know that Yahweh makes a distinction between the Egyptians and Israel.

[..]

Exodus 12

32 Take both your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone; and bless me also!”

33 The Egyptians were urgent with the people, to send them out of the land in haste, for they said, “We are all dead men.” 34 The people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their clothes on their shoulders. 35 The children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and clothing. 36 Yahweh gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. They plundered the Egyptians.

37 The children of Israel traveled from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot who were men, in addition to children. 38 A mixed multitude went up also with them, with flocks, herds, and even very much livestock. 39 They baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought out of Egypt; for it wasn’t leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt, and couldn’t wait, and they had not prepared any food for themselves. 40 Now the time that the children of Israel lived in Egypt was four hundred thirty years. 41 At the end of four hundred thirty years, to the day, all of Yahweh’s armies went out from the land of Egypt.

[..]

Exodus 21

18 “If men quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone, or with his fist, and he doesn’t die, but is confined to bed; 19 if he rises again and walks around with his staff, then he who struck him shall be cleared: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall provide for his healing until he is thoroughly healed.

20 “If a man strikes his servant or his maid with a rod, and he dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished.

[..]

Exodus 26

11 You shall make fifty clasps of brass, and put the clasps into the loops, and couple the tent together, that it may be one. 12 The overhanging part that remains of the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that remains, shall hang over the back of the tabernacle. 13 The cubit on the one side, and the cubit on the other side, of that which remains in the length of the curtains of the tent, shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle on this side and on that side, to cover it.

[..]

Exodus 30

21 So they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they not die: and it shall be a statute forever to them, even to him and to his descendants throughout their generations.”

[..]

23 “Also take fine spices: of liquid myrrh, five hundred shekels; and of fragrant cinnamon half as much, even two hundred and fifty; and of fragrant cane, two hundred and fifty; 24 and of cassia five hundred, after the shekel of the sanctuary; and a hin of olive oil. 25 You shall make it into a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

[..]

Exodus 32

32 Yet now, if you will, forgive their sin—and if not, please blot me out of your book which you have written.”

33 Yahweh said to Moses, “Whoever has sinned against me, him I will blot out of my book. 34 Now go, lead the people to the place of which I have spoken to you. Behold, my angel shall go before you. Nevertheless in the day when I punish, I will punish them for their sin.”

 

2Q3 Exodus

Contents: Exodus 4:31; 12:26-27; 18:21-22; 19:9; 22:1-3 (Hebrew 21:37-22:2), 16-18, 20 (Hebrew 15-17, 19); 27:16-19; 31:16-17; 34:10;


Language: Hebrew

Date: 30 B.C. – 68 A.D.

Location: Qumran Cave 2

 

Exodus 4

31 The people believed, and when they heard that Yahweh had visited the children of Israel, and that he had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshiped.

[..]

Exodus 12

26 It will happen, when your children ask you, ‘What do you mean by this service?’ 27 that you shall say, ‘It is the sacrifice of Yahweh’s Passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he struck the Egyptians, and spared our houses.’”

The people bowed their heads and worshiped.

[..]

Exodus 18

21 Moreover you shall provide out of all the people able men which fear God: men of truth, hating unjust gain; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. 22 Let them judge the people at all times. It shall be that every great matter they shall bring to you, but every small matter they shall judge themselves. So shall it be easier for you, and they shall share the load with you.

[..]

Exodus 19

9 Yahweh said to Moses, “Behold, I come to you in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe you forever.” Moses told the words of the people to Yahweh.

[..]

Exodus 22

1 “If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and kills it, or sells it; he shall pay five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. 2 If the thief is found breaking in, and is struck so that he dies, there shall be no guilt of bloodshed for him. 3 If the sun has risen on him, guilt of bloodshed shall be for him; he shall make restitution. If he has nothing to make restitution, then he shall be sold for his theft.

[..]

16 “If a man entices a virgin who isn’t pledged to be married, and lies with her, he shall surely pay a dowry for her to be his wife. 17 If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.

18 “You shall not allow a sorceress to live.

[..]

20 “He who sacrifices to any god, except to Yahweh only, shall be utterly destroyed.

[..]

Exodus 27

16 For the gate of the court shall be a screen of twenty cubits, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of the embroiderer; their pillars four, and their sockets four. 17 All the pillars of the court around shall be filleted with silver; their hooks of silver, and their sockets of brass. 18 The length of the court shall be one hundred cubits, and the width fifty throughout, and the height five cubits, of fine twined linen, and their sockets of brass. 19 All the instruments of the tabernacle in all its service, and all its pins, and all the pins of the court, shall be of brass.

[..]

Exodus 31

16 Therefore the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath to Yahweh, to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant. 17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel forever; for in six days Yahweh made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.’”

[..]

Exodus 34

10 He Yahweh said to Moses, “Behold, I make a covenant: before all your people I will do marvels, such as have not been worked in all the earth, nor in any nation; and all the people among which you are shall see the work of Yahweh; for it is an awesome thing that I do with you.

 

2Q4 Exodus

Contents: Exodus 5:3, 5


Language: Hebrew

Date: Before 68 A.D.

Location: Qumran Cave 2

 

Exodus 5

3 They said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Please let us go three days’ journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to Yahweh, our God, lest he fall on us with pestilence, or with the sword.”

[..]

5 Pharaoh said, “Behold, the people of the land are now many, and you make them rest from their burdens.”


4Q1 Genesis-Exodus

Contents: Genesis 22:14; 27:38-39, 42-43; 34:17-21; 35:17-29; 36:2-10, 12-13, 19, 21-22, 24-27; 37:5-6, 22-27; 39:11-23; 40:1; 45:23; 47:13-14; 48:2-4, 15-22; 49:1-4, 6; Exodus 1:3, 5-17, 22; 2:1-5; 3:8-16, 18-21; 4:4-9, 26-31; 5:1, 3-17; 6:4-21, 25; 7:5-13, 15-20; 8:20-22; 9:8


Language: Hebrew

Date:  125-100 B.C.

Location: Qumran Cave 4

 

Genesis 22

14 Abraham called the name of that place “Yahweh God Will Provide”. As it is said to this day, “On Yahweh’s mountain, it will be provided.”

[..]

Genesis 27

38 Esau said to his father, “Do you have you just one blessing, my father? Bless me, even me also, my father.” Esau lifted up his voice, and wept.

39 Isaac his father answered him,

“Behold, of the fatness of the earth will be your dwelling,

and of the dew of the sky from above.

[..]

42 The words of Esau, her elder son, were told to Rebekah. She sent and called Jacob, her younger son, and said to him, “Behold, your brother Esau comforts himself about you by planning to kill you. 43 Now therefore, my son, obey my voice. Arise, flee to Laban, my brother, in Haran.

[..]

Genesis 34

17 But if you will not listen to us and be circumcised, then we will take our sister, and we will be gone.”

18 Their words pleased Hamor and Shechem, Hamor’s son. 19 The young man didn’t wait to do this thing, because he had delight in Jacob’s daughter, and he was honored above all the house of his father. 20 Hamor and Shechem, his son, came to the gate of their city, and talked with the men of their city, saying, 21 “These men are peaceful with us. Therefore let them live in the land and trade in it. For behold, the land is large enough for them. Let’s take their daughters to us for wives, and let’s give them our daughters.

[..]

Genesis 35

17 When she was in hard labor, the midwife said to her, “Don’t be afraid, for now you will have another son.”

18 As her soul was departing (for she died), she named him Benoni, but his father named him Benjamin. 19 Rachel died, and was buried on the way to Ephrath (also called Bethlehem). 20 Jacob set up a pillar on her grave. The same is the Pillar of Rachel’s grave to this day. 21 Israel traveled, and spread his tent beyond the tower of Eder. 22 While Israel lived in that land, Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father’s concubine, and Israel heard of it.

Now the sons of Jacob were twelve. 23 The sons of Leah: Reuben (Jacob’s firstborn), and Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. 24 The sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin. 25 And the sons of Bilhah (Rachel’s servant): Dan and Naphtali. 26 And the sons of Zilpah (Leah’s servant): Gad and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob, who were born she bore to him in Paddan Aram. 27 Jacob came to Isaac his father, to Mamre, to Kiriath Arba (which is Hebron), where Abraham and Isaac lived as foreigners.

28 The days of Isaac were one hundred eighty years. 29 Isaac gave up the spirit, and died, and was gathered to his people, old and full of days. Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him.

 

Genesis 36

2 Esau took his wives from the daughters of Canaan: Adah the daughter of Elon, the Hittite; and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon, the Hivite; 3 and Basemath, Ishmael’s daughter, sister of Nebaioth. 4 Adah bore to Esau Eliphaz. Basemath bore Reuel. 5 Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These are the sons of Esau, who were born to him in the land of Canaan. 6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, and all the members of his household, with his livestock, all his animals, and all his possessions, which he had gathered in the land of Canaan, and went into a land away from his brother Jacob. 7 For their substance was too great for them to dwell together, and the land of their travels couldn’t bear them because of their livestock. 8 Esau lived in the hill country of Seir. Esau is Edom.

9 This is the history of the generations of Esau the father of the Edomites in the hill country of Seir: 10 these are the names of Esau’s sons: Eliphaz, the son of Adah, the wife of Esau; and Reuel, the son of Basemath, the wife of Esau.

[..]

12 Timna was concubine to Eliphaz, Esau’s son; and she bore to Eliphaz Amalek. These are the descendants of Adah, Esau’s wife. 13 These are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the descendants of Basemath, Esau’s wife.

[..]

19 These are the sons of Esau (that is, Edom), and these are their chiefs.

[..]

21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These are the chiefs who came of the Horites, the children of Seir in the land of Edom. 22 The children of Lotan were Hori and Heman. Lotan’s sister was Timna.

[..]

24 These are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah. This is Anah who found the hot springs in the wilderness, as he fed the donkeys of Zibeon his father. 25 These are the children of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah. 26 These are the children of Dishon: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran. 27 These are the children of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.

[..]

Genesis 37

5 Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it to his brothers, and they hated him all the more. 6 He said to them, “Please hear this dream which I have dreamed:

[..]

22 Reuben said to them, “Shed no blood. Throw him into this pit that is in the wilderness, but lay no hand on him”—that he might deliver him out of their hand, to restore him to his father. 23 When Joseph came to his brothers, they stripped Joseph of his tunic, the tunic of many colors that was on him; 24 and they took him, and threw him into the pit. The pit was empty. There was no water in it.

25 They sat down to eat bread, and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and saw a caravan of Ishmaelites was coming from Gilead, with their camels bearing spices and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt. 26 Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is it if we kill our brother and conceal his blood? 27 Come, and let’s sell him to the Ishmaelites, and not let our hand be on him; for he is our brother, our flesh.” His brothers listened to him.

[..]

Genesis 39

11 About this time, he went into the house to do his work, and there were none of the men of the house inside. 12 She caught him by his garment, saying, “Lie with me!”

He left his garment in her hand, and ran outside. 13 When she saw that he had left his garment in her hand, and had run outside, 14 she called to the men of her house, and spoke to them, saying, “Behold, he has brought a Hebrew in to us to mock us. He came in to me to lie with me, and I cried with a loud voice. 15 When he heard that I lifted up my voice and cried, he left his garment by me, and ran outside.” 16 She laid up his garment by her, until his master came home. 17 She spoke to him according to these words, saying, “The Hebrew servant, whom you have brought to us, came in to me to mock me, 18 and as I lifted up my voice and cried, he left his garment by me, and ran outside.”

19 When his master heard the words of his wife, which she spoke to him, saying, “This is what your servant did to me,” his wrath was kindled. 20 Joseph’s master took him, and put him into the prison, the place where the king’s prisoners were bound, and he was there in custody. 21 But Yahweh was with Joseph, and showed kindness to him, and gave him favor in the sight of the keeper of the prison. 22 The keeper of the prison committed to Joseph’s hand all the prisoners who were in the prison. Whatever they did there, he was responsible for it. 23 The keeper of the prison didn’t look after anything that was under his hand, because Yahweh was with him; and that which he did, Yahweh made it prosper.

 

Genesis 40

1 After these things, the butler of the king of Egypt and his baker offended their lord, the king of Egypt.

[..]

Genesis 45

23 He sent the following to his father: ten donkeys loaded with the good things of Egypt, and ten female donkeys loaded with grain and bread and provision for his father by the way.

[..]

Genesis 47

13 There was no bread in all the land; for the famine was very severe, so that the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan fainted by reason of the famine. 14 Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the grain which they bought: and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh’s house.

[..]

Genesis 48

2 Someone told Jacob, and said, “Behold, your son Joseph comes to you,” and Israel strengthened himself, and sat on the bed. 3 Jacob said to Joseph, “God Almighty appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan, and blessed me, 4 and said to me, ‘Behold, I will make you fruitful, and multiply you, and I will make of you a company of peoples, and will give this land to your offspring after you for an everlasting possession.’

[..]

15 He blessed Joseph, and said,

“The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked,

the God who has fed me all my life long to this day,

16 the angel who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads,

and let my name be named on them,

and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac.

Let them grow into a multitude upon the earth.”

17 When Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him. He held up his father’s hand, to remove it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head. 18 Joseph said to his father, “Not so, my father, for this is the firstborn. Put your right hand on his head.”

19 His father refused, and said, “I know, my son, I know. He also will become a people, and he also will be great. However, his younger brother will be greater than he, and his offspring will become a multitude of nations.” 20 He blessed them that day, saying, “Israel will bless in you, saying, ‘God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh’ ” He set Ephraim before Manasseh. 21 Israel said to Joseph, “Behold, I am dying, but God will be with you, and bring you again to the land of your fathers. 22 Moreover I have given to you one portion above your brothers, which I took out of the hand of the Amorite with my sword and with my bow.”

 

Genesis 49

1 Jacob called to his sons, and said: “Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which will happen to you in the days to come.

2 Assemble yourselves, and hear, you sons of Jacob.

Listen to Israel, your father.

 

3 “Reuben, you are my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength;

excelling in dignity, and excelling in power.

4 Boiling over like water, you shall not excel;

because you went up to your father’s bed,

then defiled it. He went up to my couch.

[..]

6 My soul, don’t come into their council.

My glory, don’t be united to their assembly;

for in their anger they killed men.

In their self-will they hamstrung cattle.

[..]

Exodus 1

3 And Issachar, and Zebulun, and Benjamin,

[..]

 5 All the souls who came out of Jacob’s body were seventy five[1] souls, and Joseph was in Egypt already. 6 Joseph died, as did all his brothers, and all that generation. 7 The children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and grew exceedingly mighty; and the land was filled with them.

8 Now there arose a new king over Egypt, who didn’t know Joseph. 9 He said to his people, “Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we. 10 Come, let’s deal wisely with them, lest they multiply, and it happen that when any war breaks out, they also join themselves to our enemies, and fight against us, and escape out of the land.” 11 Therefore they set taskmasters over them to afflict them with their burdens. They built storage cities for Pharaoh: Pithom and Raamses. 12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and the more they spread out. They started to dread the children of Israel. 13 The Egyptians ruthlessly made the children of Israel serve, 14 and they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all kinds of service in the field, all their service, in which they ruthlessly made them serve.

15 The king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah, 16 and he said, “When you perform the duty of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them on the birth stool; if it is a son, then you shall kill him; but if it is a daughter, then she shall live.” 17 But the midwives feared God, and didn’t do what the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the baby boys alive.

[..]

2 Pharaoh commanded all his people, saying, “You shall cast every son who is born into the river, and every daughter you shall save alive.”

 

Exodus 2

1 A man of the house of Levi went and took a daughter of Levi as his wife. 2 The woman conceived, and bore a son. When she saw that he was a fine child, she hid him three months. 3 When she could no longer hide him, she took a papyrus basket for him, and coated it with tar and with pitch. She put the child in it, and laid it in the reeds by the river’s bank. 4 His sister stood far off, to see what would be done to him. 5 Pharaoh’s daughter came down to bathe at the river. Her maidens walked along by the riverside. She saw the basket among the reeds, and sent her servant to get it.

[..]

Exodus 3

8 I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land to a good and large land, to a land flowing with milk and honey; to the place of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Perizzite, the Amorite, and the Hivite, the Gergashite[2], and the Jebusite. 9 Now, behold, the cry of the children of Israel has come to me. Moreover I have seen the oppression with which the Egyptians oppress them. 10 Come now therefore, and I will send you to Pharaoh, that you may bring my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt.”

11 Moses said to God, “Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring the children of Israel out of Egypt?”

12 He said, “Certainly I will be with you. This will be the token to you, that I have sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God on this mountain.”

13 Moses said to God, “Behold, when I come to the children of Israel, and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you;’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what should I tell them?”

14 God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM,” and he said, “You shall tell the children of Israel this: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’ ” 15 God said moreover to Moses, “You shall tell the children of Israel this, ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is my name forever, and this is my memorial to all generations. 16 Go and gather the elders of Israel together, and tell them, ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has appeared to me, saying, “I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt;

[..]

18 They will listen to your voice, and you shall come, you and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and you shall tell him, ‘Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. Now please let us go three days’ journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to Yahweh, our God.’ 19 I know that the king of Egypt won’t give you permission to go, no, not by a mighty hand. 20 I will reach out my hand and strike Egypt with all my wonders which I will do among them, and after that he will let you go. 21 I will give this people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, and it will happen that when you go, you shall not go empty-handed.

[..]

Exodus 4

4 Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand, and take it by the tail.”

He stretched out his hand, and took hold of it, and it became a rod in his hand.

5 “This is so that they may believe that Yahweh, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.” 6 Yahweh said furthermore to him, “Now put your hand inside your cloak.”

He put his hand inside his cloak, and when he took it out from his cloak, behold, his hand was leprous, as white as snow.

7 He said, “Put your hand inside your his cloak again.”

He put his hand inside his cloak again, and when he took it out of his cloak, behold, it had turned again as his other flesh.

8 “It will happen, if they will not believe you or listen to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign. 9 It will happen, if they will not believe even these two signs or listen to your voice, that you shall take of the water of the river, and pour it on the dry land. The water which you take out of the river will become blood on the dry land.”

[..]

26 So he let him alone. Then she said, “You are a bridegroom of blood,” because of the circumcision.

27 Yahweh said to Aaron, “Go into the wilderness to meet Moses.”

He went, and met him on God’s mountain, and kissed him. 28 Moses told Aaron all Yahweh’s words with which he had sent him, and all the signs with which he had instructed him. 29 Moses and Aaron went and gathered together all the elders of the children of Israel. 30 Aaron spoke all the words which Yahweh had spoken to Moses, and did the signs in the sight of the people. 31 The people believed, and when they heard that Yahweh had visited the children of Israel, and that he had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshiped.

 

Exodus 5

1 Afterward Moses and Aaron came, and said to Pharaoh, “This is what Yahweh, the God of Israel, says, ‘Let my people go, that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.’ ”

[..]

3 They said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Please let us go three days’ journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to Yahweh, our God, lest he fall on us with pestilence, or with the sword.”

4 The king of Egypt said to them, “Why do you, Moses and Aaron, take the people from their work? Get back to your burdens!” 5 Pharaoh said, “Behold, the people of the land are now many, and you make them rest from their burdens.” 6 The same day Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people, and their officers, saying, 7 “You shall no longer give the people straw to make brick, as before. Let them go and gather straw for themselves. 8 The number of the bricks, which they made before, you require from them. You shall not diminish anything of it, for they are idle; therefore they cry, saying, ‘Let’s go and sacrifice to our God.’ 9 Let heavier work be laid on the men, that they may labor in it; and don’t let them pay any attention to lying words.”

10 The taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and they spoke to the people, saying, “This is what Pharaoh says: ‘I will not give you straw. 11 Go yourselves, get straw where you can find it, for nothing of your work shall be diminished.’ ” 12 So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw. 13 The taskmasters were urgent saying, “Fulfill your work quota daily, as when there was straw given to you!” 14 The officers of the children of Israel, whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and were asked, “Why haven’t you fulfilled your quota both yesterday and today, in making brick as before?”

15 Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried to Pharaoh, saying, “Why do you deal this way with your servants? 16 No straw is given to your servants, and they tell us, ‘Make brick!’ and behold, your servants are beaten; but the fault is in your own people.”

17 But Pharaoh said, “You are idle! You are idle! Therefore you say, ‘Let’s go and sacrifice to Yahweh.’

[..]

Exodus 6

4 I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their travels, in which they lived as aliens. 5 Moreover I have heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage, and I have remembered my covenant. 6 Therefore tell the children of Israel, ‘I am Yahweh, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm, and with great judgments. 7 I will take you to myself for a people. I will be your God; and you shall know that I am Yahweh your God, who brings you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. 8 I will bring you into the land which I swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it to you for a heritage: I am Yahweh.’ ”

9 Moses spoke so to the children of Israel, but they didn’t listen to Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage.

10 Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 11 “Go in, speak to Pharaoh king of Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.”

12 Moses spoke before Yahweh, saying, “Behold, the children of Israel haven’t listened to me. How then shall Pharaoh listen to me, who am of uncircumcised lips?” 13 Yahweh spoke to Moses and to Aaron, and gave them a command to the children of Israel, and to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

14 These are the heads of their fathers’ houses. The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi; these are the families of Reuben. 15 The sons of Simeon: Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanite woman; these are the families of Simeon. 16 These are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations: Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari; and the years of the life of Levi were one hundred thirty-seven years. 17 The sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei, according to their families. 18 The sons of Kohath: Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel; and the years of the life of Kohath were one hundred thirty-three years. 19 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of the Levites according to their generations. 20 Amram took Jochebed his father’s sister to himself as wife; and she bore him Aaron and Moses. The years of the life of Amram were one hundred thirty-seven years. 21 The sons of Izhar: Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri.

[..]

25 Eleazar Aaron’s son took one of the daughters of Putiel as his wife; and she bore him Phinehas. These are the heads of the fathers’ houses of the Levites according to their families.

[..]

Exodus 7

5 The Egyptians shall know that I am Yahweh, when I stretch out my hand on Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from among them.”

6 Moses and Aaron did so. As Yahweh commanded them, so they did. 7 Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three years old, when they spoke to Pharaoh.

8 Yahweh spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying, 9 “When Pharaoh speaks to you, saying, ‘Perform a miracle!’ then you shall tell Aaron, ‘Take your rod, and cast it down before Pharaoh, that it become a serpent.’ ”

10 Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh, and they did so, as Yahweh had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent. 11 Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers. They also, the magicians of Egypt, did the same thing with their enchantments. 12 For they each cast down their rods, and they became serpents; but Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods. 13 Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken.

[..]

15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning. Behold, he goes out to the water; and you shall stand by the river’s bank to meet him; and the rod which was turned to a serpent you shall take in your hand. 16 You shall tell him, ‘Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you, saying, “Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness;” and behold, until now you haven’t listened. 17 Yahweh says, “In this you shall know that I am Yahweh. Behold: I will strike with the rod that is in my hand on the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood. 18 The fish that are in the river shall die, and the river shall become foul; and the Egyptians shall loathe to drink water from the river.” ’ ” 19 Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your rod, and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, over their streams, and over their pools, and over all their ponds of water, that they may become blood; and there shall be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone.’ ”

20 Moses and Aaron did so, as Yahweh commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and struck the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.

[..]

Exodus 8

24 Yahweh did so; and there came grievous swarms of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants’ houses. In all the land of Egypt the land was corrupted by reason of the swarms of flies.

25 Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God in the land!”

26 Moses said, “It isn’t appropriate to do so; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to Yahweh our God. Behold, if we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, won’t they stone us?

 [..]

Exodus 9

8 Yahweh said to Moses and to Aaron, “Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the sky in the sight of Pharaoh.


4Q13 Exodus

Contents: Exodus 1:1, 3, 5-6, 16-21; 2:2-9, 11-18; 3:13-21; 4:1, 3-8; 5:3-14


Language: Hebrew

Date:  30 B.C. - 68 A.D.

Location: Qumran Cave 4

 

Exodus 1

1 Now these are the names of the sons of Israel, who came into Egypt (every man and his household came with Jacob their father):

[..]

3 Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph and Benjamin,

[..]

5 All the souls who came out of Jacob’s body were seventy-five souls, and Joseph was in Egypt already. 6 Joseph died, as did all his brothers, and all that generation.

[..]

16 and he said, “When you perform the duty of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them on the birth stool; if it is a son, then you shall kill him; but if it is a daughter, then she shall live.” 17 But the midwives feared God, and didn’t do what the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the baby boys alive. 18 The king of Egypt called for the Hebrew midwives, and said to them, “Why have you done this thing, and have saved the boys alive?”

19 The midwives said to Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew women aren’t like the Egyptian women; for they are vigorous, and give birth before the midwife comes to them.”

20 God dealt well with the midwives, and the people multiplied, and grew very mighty. 21 Because the midwives feared God, he gave them families.

[..]

Exodus 2

2 The woman conceived, and bore a son. When she saw that he was a fine child, she hid him three months. 3 When she could no longer hide him, she took a papyrus basket for him, and coated it with tar and with pitch. She put the child in it, and said to her maidservant, “go,” and laid it in the reeds by the river’s bank. 4 His sister stood far off, to see what would be done to him. 5 Pharaoh’s daughter came down to bathe at the river. Her maidens walked along by the riverside. She saw the basket among the reeds, and sent her servant to get it. 6 She opened it, and saw the child, and behold, the baby cried. She Pharaoh’s daughter had compassion on him, and said, “This is one of the Hebrews’ children.”

7 Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, “Should I go and call a nurse for you from the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for you?”

8 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Go.”

The young woman went and called the child’s mother. 9 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Take this child away, and nurse him for me, and I will give you your wages.”

The woman took the child, and nursed it. 10 The child grew, and she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. She named him Moses, and said, “Because I drew him out of the water.”

11 In After those many days, when Moses had grown up, he went out to his brothers, and looked at their burdens. He saw an Egyptian striking a Hebrew, one of his brothers. 12 He looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no one, he killed the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand.

13 He went out the second day, and saw and behold, two men of the Hebrews were fighting with each other. He said to him who did the wrong, “Why do you strike your fellow?”

14 He said to him, “Who made you a prince and a judge over us? Do you plan to kill me, as you killed the Egyptian?”

Moses was very afraid, and said, “Surely this thing is known.” 15 Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to kill Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and lived in the land of Midian, and he sat down by a well.

16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters, shepherdesses of his flock. They came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father’s flock. 17 The shepherds came and drove them away; but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock. 18 When they came to Reuel, their father, he said, “How is it that you have returned so early today?”

[..]

Exodus 3

13 Moses said to God, “Behold, when I come to the children of Israel, and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you;’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what should I tell them?”

14 God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM,” and he said, “You shall tell the children of Israel this: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’ ” 15 God said moreover to Moses, “You shall tell the children of Israel this, ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is my name forever, and this is my memorial to all generations. 16 Go and gather the elders of the children of Israel together, and tell them, ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to me, saying, “I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt; 17 and I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite and the Girgashite, to a land flowing with milk and honey.” ’ 18 They will listen to your voice, and you shall come, you and the elders of the children of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and you shall tell him, ‘Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. Now please let us go three days’ journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to Yahweh, our God.’ 19 I know that the king of Egypt won’t give you permission to go, no, not except by a mighty hand. 20 I will reach out my hand and strike Egypt with all my wonders which I will do among them, and after that he will let you go. 21 And thus I will give this people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, and it will happen that when you go, you shall not go empty-handed.

[..]

Exodus 4

1 Moses answered, “But, behold, they will not believe me, nor listen to my voice; for they will say, ‘Yahweh has not appeared to you.’ ”

[..]

3 He said, “Throw it, then, on the ground.”

He threw it on the ground, and it became a snake; and Moses ran away from it.

4 Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand, and take it by the tail.”

He stretched out his hand, and took hold of it, and it became a rod in his hand.

5 “This is so that they may believe that Yahweh, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.” 6 Yahweh said furthermore to him, “Now put your hand inside your cloak.”

He put his hand inside his cloak, and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous, as white as snow.

7 He said, “Put your hand inside your cloak again.”

He put his hand inside his cloak again, and when he took it out of his cloak, behold, it had turned again as his other flesh.

8 “It will happen So that, if they will not believe you or listen to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign.

[..]

Exodus 5

3 They said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Please let us go three days’ journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to Yahweh, our God, lest he fall on us with pestilence, or with the sword.”

4 The king of Egypt said to them, “Why do you, Moses and Aaron, take the people from their work? Get back to your burdens!” 5 Pharaoh said, “Behold, the people of the land are now many, and you make them rest from their burdens.” 6 The same day Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people, and their officers, saying, 7 “You shall no longer give the people straw to make brick, as before. Let them go and gather straw for themselves. 8 The number of the bricks, which they made before, you require from them. You shall not diminish anything of it, for they are idle; therefore they cry, saying, ‘Let’s go and sacrifice to our God.’ 9 Let heavier work be laid on the men, that they may labor in it; and don’t let them pay any attention to lying words.”

10 The taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and they spoke to the people, saying, “This is what Pharaoh says: ‘I will not give you straw. 11 Go yourselves, and get straw where you can find it, for nothing of your work shall be diminished.’ ” 12 So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw. 13 The taskmasters were urgent saying, “Fulfill your work quota daily, as when there was straw given to you!” 14 The officers of the children of Israel, whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and were asked, “Why haven’t you fulfilled your quota both yesterday and today, in making brick as before?”

 

4Q14 Exodus

Contents: (English verse order) Exodus 7:17, 19-23; 8:1-3, 5, 9-10, 12-13, 15-18, 20-22, 26; 9:10-11, 15-20, 22-25, 27-35; 10:1-5, 7-9, 12-19, 23-24; 11:9-10; 12:12-16, 31-48; 13:18-22; 14:2-5, 7-13; 15:9, 11-21; 17:1-16; 18:1-12


Language: Hebrew

Date:  50-25 B.C.

Location: Qumran Cave 4

 

Exodus 7

17 Yahweh says, “In this you shall know that I am Yahweh. Behold: I will strike with the rod that is in my hand on the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood.

[..]

19 Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your rod, and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, over their streams, and over their pools, and over all their ponds of water, that they may become blood; and there shall be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone.’ ”

20 Moses and Aaron did so, as Yahweh commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and struck the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood. 21 The fish that were in the river died; and the river became foul, and the Egyptians couldn’t drink water from the river; and the blood was throughout all the land of Egypt. 22 The magicians of Egypt did the same thing with their enchantments; and Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken. 23 Pharaoh turned and went into his house, and he didn’t even take this to heart.

[..]

Exodus 8

1 Yahweh spoke to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh, and tell him, “This is what Yahweh says, ‘Let my people go, that they may serve me. 2 If you refuse to let them go, behold, I will plague all your borders with frogs: 3 and the river shall swarm with frogs, which shall go up and come into your house, and into your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the house of your servants, and on your people, and into your ovens, and into your kneading troughs:

[..]

5 Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your rod over the rivers, over the streams, and over the pools, and cause frogs to come up on the land of Egypt.’ ”

[..]

9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “I give you the honor of setting the time that I should pray for you, and for your servants, and for your people, that the frogs be destroyed from you and your houses, and remain in the river only.”

10 Pharaoh said, “Tomorrow.”

Moses said, “Be it according to your word, that you may know that there is no one like Yahweh our God.

[..]

12 Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried to Yahweh concerning the frogs which he had brought on Pharaoh. 13 Yahweh did according to the word of Moses, and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the courts, and out of the fields.

[..]

15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was a respite, he hardened his heart, and didn’t listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken.

16 Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your rod, and strike the dust of the earth, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.’ ” 17 They did so; and Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and struck the dust of the earth, and there were lice on man, and on animal; all the dust of the earth became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. 18 The magicians tried with their enchantments to produce lice, but they couldn’t. There were lice on man, and on animal.

[..]

20 Yahweh said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh; behold, he comes out to the water; and tell him, ‘This is what Yahweh says, “Let my people go, that they may serve me. 21 Else, if you will not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies on you, and on your servants, and on your people, and into your houses. The houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground they are on. 22 I will set apart in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end you may know that I am Yahweh on the earth.

[..]

26 Moses said, “It isn’t appropriate to do so; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to Yahweh our God. Behold, if we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, won’t they stone us?

[..]

Exodus 9

10 They took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward the sky; and it became boils and blisters breaking on man and on animal. 11 The magicians couldn’t stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians.

[..]

15 For now I would have stretched out my hand, and struck you and your people with pestilence, and you would have been cut off from the earth; 16 but indeed for this cause I have made you stand: to show you my power, and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth; 17 because you still exalt yourself against my people, that you won’t let them go. 18 Behold, tomorrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as has not been in Egypt since the day it was founded even until now. 19 Now therefore command that all of your livestock and all that you have in the field be brought into shelter. Every man and animal that is found in the field, and isn’t brought home, the hail shall come down on them, and they shall die.” ’ ”

20 Those who feared Yahweh’s word among the servants of Pharaoh made their servants and their livestock flee into the houses.

[..]

22 Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward the sky, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, on man, and on animal, and on every herb of the field, throughout the land of Egypt.”

23 Moses stretched out his rod toward the heavens, and Yahweh sent thunder and hail; and lightning flashed down to the earth. Yahweh rained hail on the land of Egypt. 24 So there was very severe hail, and lightning mixed with the hail, such as had not been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation. 25 The hail struck throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and animal; and the hail struck every herb of the field, and broke every tree of the field.

[..]

27 Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said to them, “I have sinned this time. Yahweh is righteous, and I and my people are wicked. 28 Pray to Yahweh; for there has been enough of mighty thunderings and hail. I will let you go, and you shall stay no longer.”

29 Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands to Yahweh. The thunders shall cease, and there will not be any more hail; that you may know that the earth is Yahweh’s. 30 But as for you and your servants, I know that you don’t yet fear the Lord Yahweh God.”

31 The flax and the barley were struck, for the barley had ripened and the flax was blooming and the barley had ripened. 32 But the wheat and the spelt were not struck, for they had not grown up. 33 Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands to Yahweh; and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured on the earth. 34 When Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders had ceased, he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants. 35 The heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he didn’t let the children of Israel go, just as Yahweh had spoken through Moses.

 

Exodus 10

1 Yahweh said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I may show these my signs among them; 2 and that you may tell in the hearing of your son, and of your son’s son, what things I have done to Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them and what things I have done to Egypt; that you may know that I am Yahweh.”

3 Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh, and They said to him, “This is what Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, says: ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go, that they may serve me. 4 Or else, if you refuse to let my people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your country, 5 and they shall cover the surface of the earth, so that one won’t be able to see the earth. They shall eat the residue of that which has escaped, which remains to you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which grows for you out of the field.

[..]

7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long will this man be a snare to us? Let the men go, that they may serve Yahweh, their God. Don’t you yet know that Egypt is destroyed?”

8 Moses and Aaron were brought again to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve Yahweh your God; but who are those who will go?”

9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and with our old; with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast to Yahweh.”

[..]

12 Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up on the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail has left.” 13 Moses stretched out his rod over the land of Egypt, and Yahweh brought an east wind on the land all that day, and all night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts. 14 The locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the borders of Egypt. They were very grievous. Before them there were no such locusts as they, nor will there ever be again. 15 For they covered the surface of the whole earth, so that the land it was darkened destroyed, and they ate every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left. There remained nothing green, either tree or herb of the field, through all the land of Egypt. 16 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste, and he said, “I have sinned against Yahweh your God, and against you. 17 Now therefore please forgive my sin again, and pray to Yahweh your God, that he may also take away from me this death.”

18 Moses went out from Pharaoh, and prayed to Yahweh. 19 Yahweh turned an exceedingly strong west wind, which took up the locusts, and drove them into the Red Sea. There remained not one locust in all the borders of Egypt.

[..]

23 They didn’t see one another, and nobody rose from his place for three days; but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.

24 Pharaoh called to Moses, and said, “Go, serve Yahweh. Only let your flocks and your herds stay behind. Let your little ones also go with you.”

[..]

Exodus 11

9 Yahweh said to Moses, “Pharaoh won’t listen to you, that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.” 10 Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but Yahweh hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he didn’t let the children of Israel go out of his land.

[..]

Exodus 12

12 For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and animal. Against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am Yahweh. 13 The blood shall be to you for a token on the houses where you are. When I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague will be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt. 14 This day shall be to you for a memorial, and you shall keep it a feast to Yahweh: throughout your generations you shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever.

15 “ ‘Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread; even the first day you shall put away yeast out of your houses, for whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. 16 In the first day there shall be to you a holy convocation, and in the seventh day a holy convocation; no kind of work shall be done in them, except that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you.

[..]

31 He called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, “Rise up, get out from among my people, both you and the children of Israel; and go, serve Yahweh, as you have said! 32 Take both your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone; and bless me also!”

33 The Egyptians were urgent with the people, to send them out of the land in haste, for they said, “We are all dead men.” 34 The people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their clothes on their shoulders. 35 The children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and clothing. 36 Yahweh gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. They plundered the Egyptians.

37 The children of Israel traveled from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot who were men, in addition to children. 38 A mixed multitude went up also with them, with flocks, herds, and even very much livestock. 39 They baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought out of Egypt; for it wasn’t leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt, and couldn’t wait, and they had not prepared any food for themselves. 40 Now the time that the children of Israel lived in the land of Egypt was four hundred thirty years. 41 At the end of four hundred thirty years, to the day, all of Yahweh’s armies went out from the land of Egypt. 42 It is a night to be much observed to Yahweh for bringing them out from the land of Egypt. This is that night of Yahweh, to be much observed of all the children of Israel throughout their generations.

43 Yahweh said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner shall eat of it, 44 but every man’s servant who is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then shall he eat of it. 45 A foreigner and a hired servant shall not eat of it. 46 It must be eaten in one house. You shall not carry any of the meat outside of the house. Do not break any of its bones. 47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. 48 When a stranger shall live as a foreigner with you, and will keep the Passover to Yahweh, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one who is born in the land: but no uncircumcised person shall eat of it.

[..]

Exodus 13

18 but God led the people around by the way of the wilderness by the Red Sea; and the children of Israel went up armed out of the land of Egypt. 19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for he had made the children of Israel swear, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones away from here with you.” 20 They took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness. 21 Yahweh went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them on their way, and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light, that they might go by day and by night: 22 the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, didn’t depart from before the people.

 

Exodus 14

2 “Speak to the children of Israel, that they turn back and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, before Baal Zephon. You shall encamp opposite it by the sea. 3 Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, ‘They are entangled in the land. The wilderness has shut them in.’ 4 I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and he will follow after them; and I will get honor over Pharaoh, and over all his armies; and the Egyptians shall know that I am Yahweh.” They did so.

5 The king of Egypt was told that the people had fled; and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was changed towards the people, and they said, “What is this we have done, that we have let Israel go from serving us?”

[..]

7 and he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over all of them. 8 Yahweh hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued the children of Israel; for the children of Israel went out with a high hand. 9 The Egyptians pursued them. All the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, his horsemen, and his army overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pihahiroth, before Baal Zephon.

10 When Pharaoh came near, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians were marching after them; and they were very afraid. The children of Israel cried out to Yahweh. 11 They said to Moses, “Because there were no graves in Egypt, have you taken us away to die in the wilderness? Why have you treated us this way, to bring us out of Egypt? 12 Isn’t this the word that we spoke to you in Egypt, saying, ‘Leave us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians?’ For it would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.”

13 Moses said to the people, “Don’t be afraid. Stand still, and see the salvation of Yahweh, which he will work for you today; for the Egyptians whom you have seen today, you shall never see them again.

[..]

Exodus 15

9 The enemy said, ‘I will pursue. I will overtake. I will divide the plunder.

My desire shall be satisfied on them.

I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.’

[..]

11 Who is like you, Yahweh, among the gods?

Who is like you, glorious in holiness,

fearful in praises, doing wonders?

12 You stretched out your right hand.

The earth swallowed them.

13 “You, in your loving kindness, have led the people that you have redeemed.

You have guided them in your strength to your holy habitation.

14 The peoples have heard.

And they tremble.

Pangs have taken hold on the inhabitants of Philistia.

15 Then the chiefs of Edom were dismayed.

Trembling takes hold of the mighty men of Moab.

All the inhabitants of Canaan have melted away.

16 Terror and dread falls on them.

By the greatness of your arm they are as still as a stone—

until your people pass over, Yahweh,

until the people you have purchased pass over.

17 You shall bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of your inheritance,

the place, Yahweh, which you have made for yourself to dwell in;

the sanctuary, Lord Yahweh, which your hands have established.

18 Yahweh shall reign forever and ever.”

19 For the horses of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and Yahweh brought back the waters of the sea on them; but the children of Israel walked on dry land in the middle of the sea. 20 Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a tambourine in her hand; and all the women went out after her with tambourines and with dances. 21 Miriam answered them,

“Sing to Yahweh, for he has triumphed gloriously.

The horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea.”

[..]

Exodus 17

1 All the congregation of the children of Israel traveled[1] from the wilderness of Sin, starting according to Yahweh’s commandment, and encamped in Rephidim; but there was no water for the people to drink. 2 Therefore the people quarreled with Moses, and said, “Give us water to drink.”

Moses said to them, “Why do you quarrel with me? And why do you test Yahweh?”

3 The people were thirsty for water there; and the people murmured against Moses, and said, “Why have you brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us, our children, and our livestock with thirst?”

4 Moses cried to Yahweh, saying, “What shall I do with these people? They are almost ready to stone me.”

5 Yahweh said to Moses, “Walk on before the people, and take the elders of Israel with you, and take the rod in your hand with which you struck the Nile, and go. 6 Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock in Horeb. You shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, that the people may drink.” Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel. 7 He called the name of the place Massah, and Meribah, because the children of Israel quarreled, and because they tested Yahweh, saying, “Is Yahweh among us, or not?”

8 Then Amalek came and fought with Israel in Rephidim. 9 Moses said to Joshua, “Choose men for us, and go out, fight with Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with God’s rod in my hand.” 10 So Joshua did as Moses had told him, and fought with Amalek; and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. 11 When Moses held up his hand, Israel prevailed. When he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed. 12 But Moses’ hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur held up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side. His hands were steady until sunset. 13 Joshua defeated Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword. 14 Yahweh said to Moses, “Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: that I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under the sky.” 15 Moses built an altar, and called its name “Yahweh our Banner”. 16 He said, “Yah has sworn: ‘Yahweh will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.’ ”

 

Exodus 18

1 Now Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel his people, how that Yahweh had brought Israel out of Egypt. 2 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, received Zipporah, Moses’ wife, after he had sent her away, 3 and her two sons. The name of one son was Gershom, for Moses said, “I have lived as a foreigner in a foreign land”. 4 The name of the other was Eliezer, for he said, “My father’s God was my help and delivered me from Pharaoh’s sword.” 5 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, came with Moses’ sons and his wife to Moses into the wilderness where he was encamped, at the Mountain of God. 6 He said to Moses, “I, your father-in-law Jethro[2], have come to you with your wife, and her two sons with her.”

7 Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed and kissed him. They asked each other of their welfare, and they came he brought him into the tent. 8 Moses told his father-in-law all that Yahweh had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the hardships that had come on them on the way, and how Yahweh delivered them. 9 Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which Yahweh had done to Israel, in that he had delivered them out of the hand of the Egyptians. 10 Jethro said, “Blessed be Yahweh, who has delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; who has delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians. 11 Now I know that Yahweh is greater than all gods because of the way that they treated people arrogantly.” 12 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took a burnt offering and sacrifices for God. Aaron came with all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God.


4Q15 Exodus

Contents: Exodus 13:15-16


Language: Hebrew

Date: 250-150 B.C

Location: Qumran Cave 4

 

Exodus 13

15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, Yahweh killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of livestock. Therefore I sacrifice to Yahweh all that opens the womb, being males; but all the firstborn of my sons I redeem.’ 16 It shall be for a sign on your hand, and for symbols between your eyes: for by strength of hand Yahweh brought us out of Egypt.”[1]

 

Exodus 15

1 Then Moses and the children of Israel sang this song to Yahweh, and said,

“I will sing to Yahweh, for he has triumphed gloriously.

The horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea.


4Q16 Exodus

Contents: Exodus 13:3-5


Language: Hebrew

Date: 150-75 B.C.

Location: Qumran Cave 4

 

Exodus 13

3 Moses said to the people, “Remember this day, in which you came out the land[1] of Egypt, out of the house of bondage[2]; for by strength of hand Yahweh brought you out from this place. No leavened bread shall be eaten. 4 Today you go out in the month Abib. 5 It shall be, when Yahweh your God[3] shall bring you into the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, which he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, that you shall keep this service in this month.

 

[1] This reading matches the LXX and the Samaritan Pentateuch

[2] The deleted phrase does not match the reading of the LXX or Samaritan Pentateuch, but seems unique to this scroll.

[3] This reading matches the LXX and the Samaritan Pentateuch


4Q17 Exodus-Leviticus